air temperature
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Dermeval A. Furtado ◽  
Ladyanne R. Rodrigues ◽  
Valéria P. Rodrigues ◽  
Neila L. Ribeiro ◽  
Rafael C. Silva ◽  

ABSTRACT The supply of salt water in the semiarid region is a recurrent practice, as there is a severe shortage of water for use in animal consumption. Thus, most of the times the water offered to the birds can contain salts above the recommended amount. The present study aimed to evaluate the production performance and morphometry of the organs of Japanese quails as they were supplied with drinking water with different concentrations of sodium chloride, while being maintained in comfort and under thermal stress. The birds received water with increasing electrical conductivity (1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 dS m-1) and were kept in a climate chamber at thermoneutral air temperature (24 °C) and under thermal stress (32 °C), being distributed in a completely randomized design and 2 × 4 factorial scheme. Water electrical conductivities did not affect the performance of the birds, except for the weight of the gizzard, which showed an increasing linear effect as the electrical conductivities increased. At the stress temperature, there was reduction in feed intake, egg weight and mass, and in feed conversion per dozen eggs, but with no effect on the weights of the heart, liver and gizzard. Japanese quails in the production phase can consume water with electrical conductivity of up to 6.0 dS m-1, showing good production performance and without compromising organ morphometry.

2022 ◽  
Vol 204 ◽  
pp. 111960
Zhihao Jin ◽  
Yiqun Ma ◽  
Lingzhi Chu ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Robert Dubrow ◽  

Juliana L. Paes ◽  
Vinícius de A. Ramos ◽  
Marcus V. M. de Oliveira ◽  
Marinaldo F. Pinto ◽  
Thais A. de P. Lovisi ◽  

ABSTRACT Increasing the efficiency of solar dryers with ensuring that the system remains accessible to all users can be achieved with their automation through low-cost and easy-to-use technique sensors. The objective was to develop, implement and evaluate an automatic system for monitoring drying parameters in a hybrid solar-electric dryer (HSED). Initially, an automated data acquisition system for collecting the parameters of sample mass, air temperature, and relative air humidity was developed and installed. The automatic mass data acquisition system was calibrated in the hybrid solar-electric dryer. The automated system was validated by comparing it with conventional devices for measuring the parameters under study. The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance, Tukey test and linear regression at p ≤ 0.05. The system to turn on/off the exhaust worked efficiently, helping to reduce the errors related to the mass measurement. The GERAR Mobile App showed easy to be used since it has intuitive icons and compatibility with the most used operating systems for mobile devices. The responses in communication via Bluetooth were fast. The use of Arduino, a low-cost microcontroller, to automate the monitoring activity allowed estimating the mass of the product and collecting the drying air temperature and relative air humidity data through the DHT22. This sensor showed a good correlation of mass and air temperature readings between the automatic and conventional system, but low correlation for relative air humidity. In general, the automatic data acquisition system monitored in real time the parameters for drying agricultural products in the HSED.

2022 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
pp. 161-172

Field experiments were conducted on the research farm of IARI, New Delhi during Rabi 2016-17 and 2017-18. Three varieties of wheat (PBW-723, HD-2967 and HD-3086) were sown on three different dates for generating different weather condition during various phenological stages of crop. Results showed that during early crop growth stages soil moisture had higher value and soil temperature had lower value and with progress of crop growth stage, the moisture in the upper layer decreased and soil temperature increased significantly as compared to the bottom layers. During tillering and jointing stage, air temperature within canopy was more and relative humidity was less while during flowering and grain filling stage, air temperature within canopy was less and relative humidity was more in timely sown crop as compared to late and very late sown crop. Radiation use efficiency and relative leaf water content had significantly higher value while leaf water potential had lower value in timely sown crop followed by late and very late sown crop. Yield had higher value in HD-3086 followed by HD-2967 and PBW-723 in all weather conditions. Canopy air temperature difference had positive value in very late sown crop particularly during flowering and grain-filling stages. This reflects in the yield. Yield was more in timely sown crop as compared to late and very late sown crop.  

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 197
Toby A. Adjuik ◽  
Sarah C. Davis

With the growing number of datasets to describe greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, there is an opportunity to develop novel predictive models that require neither the expense nor time required to make direct field measurements. This study evaluates the potential for machine learning (ML) approaches to predict soil GHG emissions without the biogeochemical expertise that is required to use many current models for simulating soil GHGs. There are ample data from field measurements now publicly available to test new modeling approaches. The objective of this paper was to develop and evaluate machine learning (ML) models using field data (soil temperature, soil moisture, soil classification, crop type, fertilization type, and air temperature) available in the Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network (GRACEnet) database to simulate soil CO2 fluxes with different fertilization methods. Four machine learning algorithms—K nearest neighbor regression (KNN), support vector regression (SVR), random forest (RF) regression, and gradient boosted (GB) regression—were used to develop the models. The GB regression model outperformed all the other models on the training dataset with R2 = 0.88, MAE = 2177.89 g C ha−1 day−1, and RMSE 4405.43 g C ha−1 day−1. However, the RF and GB regression models both performed optimally on the unseen test dataset with R2 = 0.82. Machine learning tools were useful for developing predictors based on soil classification, soil temperature and air temperature when a large database like GRACEnet is available, but these were not highly predictive variables in correlation analysis. This study demonstrates the suitability of using tree-based ML algorithms for predictive modeling of CO2 fluxes, but no biogeochemical processes can be described with such models.

Abstract High-resolution historical climate grids are readily available and frequently used as inputs for a wide range of regional management and risk assessments including water supply, ecological processes, and as baseline for climate change impact studies that compare them to future projected conditions. Because historical gridded climates are produced using various methods, their portrayal of landscape conditions differ, which becomes a source of uncertainty when they are applied to subsequent analyses. Here we tested the range of values from five gridded climate datasets. We compared their values to observations from 1,231 weather stations, first using each dataset’s native scale, and then after each was rescaled to 270-meter resolution. We inputted the downscaled grids to a mechanistic hydrology model and assessed the spatial results of six hydrological variables across California, in 10 ecoregions and 11 large watersheds in the Sierra Nevada. PRISM was most accurate for precipitation, ClimateNA for maximum temperature, and TopoWx for minimum temperature. The single most accurate dataset overall was PRISM due to the best performance for precipitation and low air temperature errors. Hydrological differences ranged up to 70% of the average monthly streamflow with an average of 35% disagreement for all months derived from different historical climate maps. Large differences in minimum air temperature data produced differences in modeled actual evapotranspiration, snowpack, and streamflow. Areas with the highest variability in climate data, including the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains ecoregions, also had the largest spread for Snow Water Equivalent (SWE), recharge and runoff.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Fenghe Wang ◽  
Zongxin Liu ◽  
Yechun Ding ◽  
Deyong Yang

Abstract In order to explore the feasibility of hot air splitting of Camellia oleifera fruit, the effect of hot air temperature on peel splitting, the moisture state and moisture migration in peel, the peel microstructure and the seed color were studied. The results showed that higher hot air temperature could accelerate the splitting rate, the optimum temperature for splitting C. oleifera fruit was 90–110 °C considering the seed quality. Page model was the most suitable for describing the drying kinetic characteristics of C. oleifera fruit. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed the changing of the dehydration rate, the migration rate of bound water, immobilized water and free water in peel during hot air drying. The expansion of micro-channels in peel was conducive to moisture migration in the early splitting stage, but microstructure damaged in the late splitting stage accompanied by loose disorder of micro pores, serious shrinkage and deformation of peel.

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