water systems
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2022 ◽  
Vol 309 ◽  
pp. 118503
Author(s):  
Xin Zhou ◽  
Shuai Tian ◽  
Jingjing An ◽  
Da Yan ◽  
Lun Zhang ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 148 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
Marta Zemite ◽  
Linda Mezule ◽  
Kamila Gruskevica ◽  
Kristina Kokina ◽  
Janis Rubulis ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Author(s):  
Brook Muller

With interest in advancing inclusive urban landscapes and guided by principles of social and cultural sustainability, this essay speculates as to localized water infrastructures as “ablutionary urbanisms,” important forms of contemporary design expression in a context of rapid growth, widening inequalities, climate change and lack of resilience. It derives inspiration from vernacular precedents in advocating for an integrated, decentralized approach to addressing current urban water challenges. It explores the contemporary relevance of the sabil, a prominent civic feature of Islamic cities intended for the charitable dispensation of water. More specifically, this essay considers the contemporary relevance and potency of the sabil-kuttab, a hybrid building type unique to the city of Cairo in which a school (kuttab) sits atop a sabil. Such a type offers helpful guidance in devising principles and precepts relevant to contemporary infrastructural design in that: (1) it offers encouragement to advocate for distributed urban water systems as civically prominent elements of cities, particularly as these systems combine with other important community-focused programmatic features; and (2) given a reimagining of urban water systems as critical forms of cultural production, it offers encouragement for interdisciplinary teams to commit to the task of infrastructure planning as a promising locus of integrative design.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dante Guerra ◽  
Deron Arceneaux ◽  
Ding Zhu ◽  
A. D. Hill

Abstract Presently, two-phase flow behavior through propped and unpropped fractures is poorly understood, and due to this fact, reservoir modeling using numerical simulation for the domain that contains fractures typically assumes straight-line relative permeability curves and zero capillary pressure in the fractures. However, there have been several studies demonstrating that both viscous and capillary dominated flow can be expected in fractured reservoirs, where non-linear fracture relative permeabilities must be used to accurately model these reservoirs. The objective of this study is to develop an understanding of the relative permeability of oil-water systems in fractures through experimental study. The experimental measurements conducted in this study were done using downhole cores from the Wolfcamp and the Eagle Ford Shale formations. The cores were cut to 1.5-in diameter and 6-in length testing samples. The specimens are saw-cut to generate a fracture along each sample first, and then conditioned in the reservoir fluid at the reservoir temperature for a minimum of 30 days prior to any testing. Wolfcamp and Eagle Ford formation oil and reconstituted brine with and without surfactants are used as the test fluids. The measurements were recorded at effective fracture closure stress and reservoir temperature. Also, real-time measurements of density, pressure, and flow rate are recorded throughout the duration of each test. Fluid saturation within the fracture was calculated using the mass continuity equation. The oil-water relative permeability was measured using the steady-state method. All measurements were conducted at reservoir temperature and at representative effective fracture closure stress. The data from the experimental measurements was analyzed using Darcy's law, and a clear relationship between relative permeability and saturation was observed. The calculated relative permeability curves closely follow the generalized Brooks-Corey correlation for oil-water systems. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the relative permeability curves between the oil-water only systems and the oil-water surfactant systems. The result of this study is useful for estimating the expected oil production more realistically. It also provides information about the effect of surfactants on oil-water relative permeability for optimal design of fracture fluids.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sebastien P. Faucher ◽  
Sara Matthews ◽  
Arvin Nickzad ◽  
Passoret Vounba ◽  
Deeksha Shetty ◽  
...  

Legionella pneumophila is a natural inhabitant of water systems. From there, it can be transmitted to humans by aerosolization resulting in severe pneumonia. Most large outbreaks are caused by cooling towers contaminated with L. pneumophila. The resident microbiota of the cooling tower is a key determinant for the colonization and growth of L. pneumophila. The genus Pseudomonas correlates negatively with the presence of L. pneumophila, but it is not clear which species is responsible. Therefore, we identified the Pseudomonas species inhabiting 14 cooling towers using a Pseudomonas-specific 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing strategy. Cooling towers free of L. pneumophila contained a high relative abundance of members from the Pseudomonas alcaliphila/oleovorans phylogenetic cluster. In vitro, P. alcaliphila JCM 10630 inhibited the growth of L. pneumophila on agar plates. Analysis of the P. alcaliphila genome revealed the presence of a genes cluster predicted to produce toxoflavin. L. pneumophila growth was inhibited by pure toxoflavin and by extract from P. alcaliphila culture found to contain toxoflavin by LC-ESI-MS. In addition, toxoflavin inhibits growth of Vermameoba vermiformis, a host cell of L. pneumophila. Our study indicates that P. alcaliphila may be important to restrict growth of L. pneumophila in water systems through the production of toxoflavin. A sufficiently high concentration is likely not achieved in the bulk water but might have a local inhibitory effect such as in biofilm.


Author(s):  
Ramon Hochstrasser ◽  
Hubert Hilbi

Legionella species are facultative intracellular pathogens, which cause a life-threatening pneumonia termed Legionnaires’ disease. Legionella pneumophila employs the Legionella quorum sensing (Lqs)-LvbR network to regulate virulence and motility, but its role for growth in media is ill-defined. Here we report that compared to the parental L. pneumophila strain JR32, a Δ lqsR mutant showed a reduced lag phase at 30°C and reached a higher cell density at 45°C, while the Δ lqsA , Δ lqsS and Δ lqsT mutants showed a longer lag phase and reached only a lower cell density. A Δ lvbR mutant resumed growth like the parental strain at 30°C, but exhibited a substantially reduced cell density at 45°C. Thus, LvbR is an important cell density regulator at elevated temperatures. Environmental and clinical L. pneumophila strains grew in AYE medium after distinct lag phases with similar rates at 30°C, reached different cell densities at the optimal growth temperature of 40°C, and no longer grew at 50°C. Legionella longbeachae reached a rather low cell density at 40°C and did not grow at and beyond 45°C. Genes encoding components of the Lqs-LvbR network were present in the genomes of the environmental and clinical L. pneumophila isolates, and upon growth at 30°C or 45°C the P lqsR , P lqsA , P lqsS and P lvbR promoters from strain JR32 were expressed in these strains with distinct patterns. Taken together, our results indicate that the Lqs-LvbR network governs the temperature-dependent growth onset and cell density of the L. pneumophila reference strain JR32, and possibly also of environmental and clinical L. pneumophila isolates. Importance Environmental bacteria of the genus Legionella are the causative agents of the severe pneumonia Legionnaires’ disease, the incidence of which is worldwide on the rise. Legionella pneumophila and Legionella longbeachae are the clinically most relevant species. The opportunistic pathogens are inhaled through contaminated aerosols and replicate in human lung macrophages with a similar mechanism as in their natural hosts, free-living amoebae. Given their prevalence in natural and technical water systems, an efficient control of Legionella spp. by physical, chemical or biological means will reduce the incidence of Legionnaires’ disease. Here we show that the Legionella quorum sensing (Lqs) system and the pleiotropic transcription factor LvbR govern the temperature-dependent growth onset and cell density of bacterial cultures. Hence, the growth of L. pneumophila in water systems is not only determined by the temperature and nutrient availability, but also by quorum sensing, i.e., density- and signaling molecule-dependent gene regulation.


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