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2022 ◽  
Vol 114 ◽  
pp. 105949
Kristýna Křištofová ◽  
Michal Lehnert ◽  
Stanislav Martinát ◽  
Vladimír Tokar ◽  
Zdeněk Opravil

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (6) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Resource utilization not only meets the needs of economic development, but also has a far-reaching negative impact on the environment. Environmental regulation is regarded as the key measure to solve environmental pollution. However, the rent-seeking behavior of local enterprises will seriously weaken the implementation effect of environmental regulations. Under the background of the development of big data era, the massive micro enterprise data provided by China's private enterprise survey database provides favorable conditions for this paper to study its impact effect from the direction of big data. This paper uses OLS model and Tobit model to investigate the impact of rent-seeking on the implementation effect of environmental regulation. The results show that environmental regulation will make honest enterprises actively reduce output to control the emission level. However, rent-seeking enterprises will further expand their output to gain greater profits because they are sheltered by local governments.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xukun Su ◽  
Yu Shen ◽  
Shikui Dong ◽  
Yuqing Liu ◽  
Hao Cheng ◽  

Ignoring the responses of local households to ecological protection policies can not only seriously limit sustainable development of the alpine grassland ecosystem, but also not improve livelihood on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). It is of vital importance to clearly understand coupling feedback and trigger between household decision-making of local herdsmen with the implementation of ecological protection policies. We selected Sanjiangyuan National Park (SNP) as the study area which was in the hinterland of the QTP and the first national park in China. We used the global rangeland (G-Range) model to simulate alpine grassland changes and DEcisions under Conditions of Uncertainty by Modeled Agents (DECUMA) model to identify household decision-making of local herdsmen. Results showed that: (1) distribution of livestock density was basically consistent with the distribution of habitat suitability of local households in the SNP; (2) more than half of the uneducated households (52 and 70%) opposed the eco-compensation and eco-migration policies; (3) most of the households (53.7%) never traded livestock for maintaining their livelihood; and (4) When local households owed 65,000 yuan (≈10,000 dollars) in debts, as the critical value (trigger), they traded livestock to support their livelihood. We suggest that feedback and trigger of household decision-making should be fully considered by managers of national park and policymakers of local governments in planning ecological protection policies to maintain sustainable development of alpine grassland, which is of practical significance to long-term conservation and sustainable utilization of natural resources in the SNP.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Dian Anita Nuswantara

Purpose This paper aims to reframe the whistleblowing process by examining the individual and situational factors that have been overlooked by prior studies. Ethical climate, public service motivation (PSM), organisation identification and psychological safety are inquired. Design/methodology/approach The present study sample was drawn from a population of Indonesian local governments located in east Java, Indonesia. Particularly, self-administered questionnaires were hand-distributed to the employees in the four local governments. Of 2,169 questionnaires distributed to the employees, 1,687 questionnaires were returned to the researcher. However, the researcher removed 33 returned questionnaires because of poor data quality, such as incomplete answers. Thus, only 1,654 questionnaires were analysed in this study. Findings The findings support the idea of an ethical climate that can encourage the individual to blow the whistle. However, its effect is indirect. The predictive power of ethical climate on the individual’s whistleblowing intentions depends on the meditating roles of PSM, psychological safety and organisation identification. Interestingly, the mediating effects of PSM, psychological safety and organisation identification are extremely acknowledged when individuals have an opportunity to choose internal or external disclosures. Originality/value This study produces a different approach to understanding people’s intentions to report any wrongdoings. This study is dissimilar from prior studies in terms of the theoretical paradigm and research design. Previous studies mostly used students as their experiments. In contrast, the current study recruited employees who work in local governments. This situation fundamentally affects the understanding of the impact of an ethical climate on the individual intention to blow the whistle.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Michael A. Hansen ◽  
John C. Navarro ◽  
Sierra A. Malvitz

PurposeThe purpose of this study is to explore the availability of information on law enforcement websites in the state of Wisconsin.Design/methodology/approachThe study conducted a content analysis of all 179 county and municipal local law enforcement agency websites within Wisconsin. The authors then implemented a comparative analysis that explored whether the quantity and quality of information available on law enforcement websites are similar to those of local governments and school districts. The authors then estimated models to test whether there is a relationship between the population size served and gender distribution of law enforcement departments to the availability of information on law enforcement websites.FindingsLaw enforcement websites contain a noticeable lack of information. The finding is even more apparent when comparing law enforcement websites to the websites of local governments and school districts. Finally, the authors show a positive link between information sharing on law enforcement websites and the proportion of the civilian staff at an agency that are women.Originality/valuePast studies that reviewed the make-up of law enforcement websites analyzed large law enforcement departments rather than local law enforcement departments, which notably represent the majority of most law enforcement departments. The authors also explicitly demonstrate that the commitment to information sharing is lagging within law enforcement websites compared to local-level governments. Future scholarship and law enforcement departments may benefit from exploring the employment of female civilians.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 531
Jingna Kou ◽  
Fengjun Sun ◽  
Wei Li ◽  
Jie Jin

There is a global move toward being “carbon neutral”. Reducing the use of coal to generate power has become an inevitable choice for many countries when transforming their energy structures. Many countries have proposed phasing out coal. China is a major energy producing and consuming country and intends to reach a carbon peak by 2030 and become carbon neutral by 2060. China has repeatedly emphasized coal reduction, but has not explicitly proposed phasing out coal, due to the influence of local governments, coal-related enterprises, and the public. This paper explores whether China could declare a “coal phase-out”, and the possible reasons for doing so, by constructing an evolutionary game model with two correlations. MATLAB was used to simulate the model results to determine the effectiveness of the fractal results of the model, and the entropy method was used to calculate the development level of “coal phase-out” related indicators in China and Germany. The results show that: (1) The government can phase out coal only when coal-related enterprises and the public can benefit from reducing coal production and consumption. In addition, these benefits are needed to ensure stable economic and social development without affecting people’s daily lives; (2) The development level of relevant indicators of “coal retreat” in China is lower than that in Germany. Based on these results, it is concluded that it is difficult for China to announce a “coal phase-out” at present. Faced with this reality, China should improve the efficiency of coal use, install carbon capture and storage facilities, vigorously develop renewable energy and reduce the share of coal in the energy system.

2022 ◽  
Franziska Plümmer

In the 21st century, governments around the globe are faced with the question on how to tackle new migratory mobilities. Governments increasingly become aware of irregular immigration and are forced to re-negotiate the dilemma of open but secure borders. Rethinking Authority in China’s Border Regime: Regulating the Irregular investigates the Chinese government’s response to this phenomenon. Hence, this book presents a comprehensive analysis of the Chinese border regime. It explores the regulatory framework of border mobility in China by analysing laws, institutions, and discourses as part of an ethnographic border regime analysis. It argues that the Chinese state deliberately creates ‘zones of exception’ along its border. In these zones, local governments function as ‘scalar managers’ that establish cross-border relations to facilitate cross-border mobility and create local migration systems that build on their own notion of legality by issuing locally valid border documents. The book presents an empirically rich story of how border politics are implemented and theoretically contributes to debates on territoriality and sovereignty as well as to the question of how authority is exerted through border management. Empirically, the analysis builds on two case studies at the Sino-Myanmar and Sino-North Korean borders to illustrate how local practices are embedded in multiscalar mobility regulation including regional organizations such as the Greater Mekong Subregion and the Greater Tumen Initiative.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 167-176
Suwardi Annas ◽  
Uca Uca ◽  
Irwan Irwan ◽  
Rahmat Hesha Safei ◽  
Zulkifli Rais

Air pollution is an important environmental problem for specific areas, including Makassar City, Indonesia. The increase should be monitored and evaluated, especially in urban areas that are dense with vehicles and factories. This is a challenge for local governments in urban planning and policy-making to fulfill the information about the impact of air pollution. The clustering of starting points for the distribution areas can ease the government to determine policies and prevent the impact. The k-Means initial clustering method was used while the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) visualized the clustering results. Furthermore, the Geographic Information System (GIS) visualized the results of regional clustering on a map of Makassar City. The air quality parameters used are Suspended Particles (TSP), Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Surface Ozone (O3), and Lead (Pb) which are measured during the day and at night. The results showed that the air contains more CO, and at night, the levels are reduced in some areas. Therefore, the density of traffic, industry and construction work contributes significantly to the spread of CO. Air conditions vary, such as high CO levels during the day and TSP at night. Also, there is a phenomenon at night that a group does not have SO2 and O3 simultaneously. The results also show that the integration of k-Means and SOM for regional clustering can be appropriately mapped through GIS visualization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 817
Ralf-Martin Soe ◽  
Lill Sarv ◽  
Mila Gasco-Hernandez

This paper investigates on long-term challenges faced by local governments. Using empirical evidence from Estonia, this paper aims to help fill a research gap in that there is a lack of a systematic approach on how to analyze common urban challenges via direct involvement of local governments. In terms of conceptual framework, a unique combination of public value theory and mission-oriented innovation is proposed. The data is collected via questionnaire, interviews and workshops involving up to 35 local governments. It is important that instead of current problems relating only to one city, this study focuses on finding shared, long-term challenges and, from them, generates a list of top 10 challenges. This provides valuable input to initiating new research and innovation projects in the key, smart city domains (e.g., energy, mobility, built environment, governance and data).

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