Ethical Considerations
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Social Work ◽  
2021 ◽  

Social workers help very culturally diverse populations. Therefore social workers are likely to work with language interpreters in various settings such as mental health agencies, healthcare settings, communities, and courts. Interpreters are persons whose role is to verbally or through sign language translate between individuals or groups who do not share the same language. A translator is a person who translates the written word from one language to another. Not all interpreters feel competent to translate writing, and not all translators feel competent to translate languages verbally. An interpreter can interpret verbatim or conceptually. There are professionally trained interpreters and informal interpreters. Professional interpreters have been trained and are hired to perform interpreted services in a variety of settings. Informal interpreters might be staff members who are bilingual, friends of the clients, or family members of clients including their children. There are clinical and ethical considerations that social workers must consider when working with interpreters, be they professionally trained or informal.


Author(s):  
Guglielmo Papagni ◽  
Sabine Koeszegi

AbstractArtificial agents are progressively becoming more present in everyday-life situations and more sophisticated in their interaction affordances. In some specific cases, like Google Duplex, GPT-3 bots or Deep Mind’s AlphaGo Zero, their capabilities reach or exceed human levels. The use contexts of everyday life necessitate making such agents understandable by laypeople. At the same time, displaying human levels of social behavior has kindled the debate over the adoption of Dennett’s ‘intentional stance’. By means of a comparative analysis of the literature on robots and virtual agents, we defend the thesis that approaching these artificial agents ‘as if’ they had intentions and forms of social, goal-oriented rationality is the only way to deal with their complexity on a daily base. Specifically, we claim that this is the only viable strategy for non-expert users to understand, predict and perhaps learn from artificial agents’ behavior in everyday social contexts. Furthermore, we argue that as long as agents are transparent about their design principles and functionality, attributing intentions to their actions is not only essential, but also ethical. Additionally, we propose design guidelines inspired by the debate over the adoption of the intentional stance.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Temidayo Eseonu ◽  
James Duggan

PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to explore the role of claims of cultural appropriation in negotiating who has the right to utilise specific racial, cultural or communities' ways of knowing in research co-production. Cultural appropriation is a claim made against those making illegitimate use of traditions, knowledge and practises that originate from specific racial and/or cultural group. Appropriation helps us interrogate the ways in which rewards and benefits in academia are distributed and shared, denied or hoarded, and by whom.Design/methodology/approachThe paper is a dialogue between two researchers in the in-betweens of research co-production, specifically in the negotiation of claiming the right to lead or engage in Afrofuturist work with communities.FindingsThe claim of cultural appropriation is useful in naming, drawing boundaries and creating spaces for negotiation around access and ownership of academic work but must also develop as part of a broader transformative agenda towards racial equality in academia.Research limitations/implicationsIn addition to ethical considerations about power imbalances and extractive practises, research co-production should also be concerned with acknowledging and crediting knowledge production practises that originate from specific racial and/or cultural groups.Originality/valueThis is the first paper to explore issues of cultural appropriation in research co-production, and co-production in relation to Afrofuturism. This extends ethical concerns on research co-production beyond academic power imbalances with, and extracting value from, communities to negotiating the relationships between academics and traditions, knowledge and practises developed by specific racial and/or cultural groups.


2021 ◽  
pp. 147775092110341
Author(s):  
Mojtaba Vaismoradi ◽  
Cathrine Fredriksen Moe ◽  
M Flores Vizcaya-Moreno ◽  
Piret Paal

The administration of pro re nata medications is the responsibility of the nurse. However, ethical uncertainties often happen due to the inability of incapacitated patients to collaborate with the nurse in the process of decision making for pro re nata medication administration. There is a lack of integrative knowledge and insufficient understanding regarding ethical considerations surrounding the administration of pro re nata medications to incapacitated patients. Therefore, they have been discussed in this paper and practical strategies to avoid unethical practices have been suggested. The complicated caring situation surrounding the administration of pro re nata medications is intertwined with ethical issues affecting the consideration of the patient's wishes and interventions that override them. The patient's right of autonomy and treatment refusal, surrogacy role, paternalism, and coercion are the main ethos of ethical pro re nata medication administration. Education and training can help nurses avoid legal and ethical issues in pro re nata medicines management and improve the quality and safety of healthcare. Empirical research is needed to improve our understanding of this phenomenon in the multidisciplinary environment of medicines management.


Author(s):  
Annie Heiderscheit ◽  
Kathleen M Murphy

Abstract The 2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health reports that 9.5 million Americans aged 18 and older have been diagnosed with more than one mental disorder. Music therapists working in mental health treatment settings are likely to work with individuals who have a complex diagnosis defined here as 2 or more of the following: depression, eating disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, substance use disorder, and severe mental illness. Additionally, adverse childhood events or posttraumatic stress disorder often complicate the clinical profile. Given this, a trauma-informed approach to music therapy treatment is necessary to improve outcomes and minimize harm. The risks, contraindications, and ethical considerations necessary to effectively treat and care for these clients in music therapy will be reviewed. Methods of identifying, assessing, and treating these complex clinical issues in music therapy are discussed with the goal of helping clinicians understand: (1) where treatment needs to begin to ensure therapeutic goals addressing primary issues prior to addressing secondary issues and (2) the appropriate use of music therapy methods. The necessity for music therapists to understand the power of the music in the music therapy process is explored, to ensure that clinicians are meeting client needs, not triggering symptomatology, traumatic memories, or experiences. The importance of a clinician knowing their scope of practice, when they are adequately trained and prepared to work with clients with complex disorders, and how to utilize support such as consultation and supervision to support their effective treatment with client(s) is presented.


Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (8) ◽  
pp. 1105
Author(s):  
Laurent C. A. M. Tellier ◽  
Jennifer Eccles ◽  
Nathan R. Treff ◽  
Louis Lello ◽  
Simon Fishel ◽  
...  

Machine learning methods applied to large genomic datasets (such as those used in GWAS) have led to the creation of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) that can be used identify individuals who are at highly elevated risk for important disease conditions, such as coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes, hypertension, breast cancer, and many more. PRSs have been validated in large population groups across multiple continents and are under evaluation for widespread clinical use in adult health. It has been shown that PRSs can be used to identify which of two individuals is at a lower disease risk, even when these two individuals are siblings from a shared family environment. The relative risk reduction (RRR) from choosing an embryo with a lower PRS (with respect to one chosen at random) can be quantified by using these sibling results. New technology for precise embryo genotyping allows more sophisticated preimplantation ranking with better results than the current method of selection that is based on morphology. We review the advances described above and discuss related ethical considerations.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 388
Author(s):  
Mohd Akhtar Ali ◽  
Hamiduddin

Qarābādhīn can be termed as pharmacopoeia, contains compiled form of compound formulations or recipes. Importance of Qarābādhīn gradually increased and acquired an imperative status. The history of Qarābādhīn starts from Chiron, Aesculapius, Hippocrates, Dioscorides and Galen in Greco-Roman era. Many of early and medieval Islamic and Arab physicians play vital role and immense original contribution in this discipline and authored important and essential Qarābādhīn with systemic and scientific approaches. Although some of them could not reach the present day, many of the manuscripts can be found in various libraries across the world. Since the Arab Caliphates appreciated and patronized the fields of medicine acquired from Greeks and worked for its development, this period also known as “Greco-Arabic era”. In this work the evaluation of Qarābādhīn (particularly written in Arabic or Greek language) was done in historical and regulatory perspective particularly in Greek era and later on in Medieval Islamic era. The findings of the review indicate the importance and regulatory status of Qarābādhīn and provide information about it. It can be helpful to explore Qarābādhīn and related publications of Greek and Medieval Islamic Arabic period, which gives foundations for the present-day pharmacopeias. Since these documents also take into account ethical considerations, its utility in the fields of medicine and medical ethics should be investigated.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 388-404


2021 ◽  
pp. 096973302110032
Author(s):  
Nina Margrethe Kynø ◽  
Ingrid Hanssen

Background: In the neonatal intensive care unit, immigrant parents may experience even greater anxiety than other parents, particularly if they and the nurses do not share a common language. Aim: To explore the complex issues of trust and the nurse–mother relationship in neonatal intensive care units when they do not share a common language. Design and methods: This study has a qualitative design. Individual semi-structured in-depth interviews and two focus group interviews were conducted with eight immigrant mothers and eight neonatal intensive care unit nurses, respectively. Data analysis was based on Braun and Clarke’s thematic analytic method. Ethical considerations: Approval was obtained from the hospital’s Scientific Committee and the Data Protection Officer. Interviewees were informed in their native language about confidentiality and they signed an informed consent form. Results: Trust was a focus for mothers and nurses alike. The mothers held that they were satisfied that their infants received the very best care. They seemed to find the nurses’ care and compassion unexpected and said they felt empowered by learning how to care for their infant. The nurses discussed the mother’s vulnerability, dependency on their actions, attitudes and behaviour. Discussion: Lack of a common language created a challenge. Both parties depended on non-verbal communication and eye contact. The nurses found that being compassionate, competent and knowledgeable were important trust-building factors. The mothers were relieved to find that they were welcome, could feel safe and their infants were well cared for. Conclusion: The parents of an infant admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit have no choice but to trust the treatment and care their infant receives. Maternal vulnerability challenges the nurse’s awareness of the asymmetric distribution of power and ability to establish a trusting relationship with the mother. This is particularly important when mother and nurse do not share a verbal language. The nurses worked purposefully to gain trust.


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