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2022 ◽  
Vol 174 ◽  
pp. 121303
Mengdan Zhang ◽  
Chonghui Zhang ◽  
Qiule Shi ◽  
Shouzhen Zeng ◽  
Tomas Balezentis

2021 ◽  
Vol 120 (829) ◽  
pp. 326-331
Prakash Kashwan ◽  
Jesse Ribot

A widespread failure to recognize the social and political-economic causes of climate-related crises is an erasure of history that hides potential solutions and absolves guilty parties of responsibility. This blocking out of causality is perpetuating slow and silent violence against present and future generations. These erasures are illustrated by two short cases: the causes of famine and dislocation in the Sahel, and the causes of farmers’ suicides in India. The essay highlights the need to recognize histories of exploitation, and introduces the “Exploiter Pays Principle,” in order to deliver justice in climate policymaking.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (8) ◽  
pp. 34-48
František Stellner

This article considers palace coups as one of the key phenomena of Russian political culture, which intertwined traditions and innovations, accidents and patterns, personal and corporate interests, prudence and adventurism. It analyzes methods and mechanisms by which the Russian autocrats of the late 17th – 18th centuries ascended to the throne. The ways of ascension to the throne were different, but they had one thing in common – compliance with clear rules of succession was very far from ideal, which was significantly different from most European monarchies. In monarchies where inheritance was legally fixed by the principle of primogeniture, it was much more difficult to carry out palace coups. There was no such mandatory legal norm for the Romanov dynasty. Palace coups in Russia did not lead to changes in the social and economic sphere or in the mechanisms of functioning of the state, with the exception of the political careers of individual dignitaries. The last palace revolution in the history of Russia took place in 1801 and symbolically completed the 18th century for it. Most of the changes on the Russian throne during the 18th century took place in the form of a “palace coup” with the participation of representatives of the dynasty and, as a rule, the highest dignitaries. Such methods of changing rulers reflected a certain instability of the supreme power, disputes about the ways of modernizing the country, the consequences of Peter the Great’s reforms and, in fact, intra-dynastic contradictions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
Ahmad Nasihin ◽  
Safnil Arsyad ◽  
Alamsyah Harahap ◽  
Dian Eka Chandra Wardhana

Argumentation in writing research articles is very crucial for showing the position of authors in a certain science field, but the social and humanity authors are still lower in skill for argumentation. This research investigated the using and impact of the Genre Based Approach (GBA) in training and mentoring of Research Article writing in improving the skill of argumentation in writing RA. The aim of this study is to describe the activity of learning and teaching by using GBA in training and mentoring of writing RA for social and humanity authors and the impact of this training and mentoring on the skill of argumentation in RAs writing. The material and steps of learning and teaching activity are adapted and modified from Widodo (2006) who stated that the rule of GBA is to prepare, focus, task, evaluate and elaborate. Moreover, Ferris & Hedgcock (2005) also explained that GBA is started from joint construction and independent construction stages when students start to write. The instruments of this research were direct observation and RAs draft analysis. Direct observing is also conducted to record every side of GBA design for teaching writing articles. To find the effect of GBA in training and mentoring to improve argumentative skills, the content analysis to the draft of RAs is conducted. The Result shows that the first the activity of training and mentoring writing RAs by using GBA to improve argumentation skills can be described from prepare, focus, task, evaluate and elaborate. The second finding shows that the participants have competence in writing argumentative for each section of RAS. Thus, it can be concluded that GBA in training and mentoring to write RAs is effective to improve argumentative skills in writing class especially writing RAs class.

2021 ◽  
Vol 55 (1) ◽  
Aletta Vrey

The temple metaphor in Ephesians 2:11–22 as part of identity formation of the believing in-group. One of the basic human needs is to belong, feel accepted and be part of a group. During the first century people from different backgrounds believed in Jesus, consequently unity among believers became a challenge. The inclusive heart of God, the atonement of Christ and the Holy Spirit unites believers from different backgrounds and groups. This article examines spiritual unity as part of the believers’ identity as portrayed by the temple metaphor in Ephesians 2:11–22. Christians should acknowledge their differences, as the author of Ephesians clearly does, without causing division in the group. Identity formation is linked to group membership, therefore the identity of the early Christian group is examined, to determine the influence it still has on the present-day unity among believers. We divide our society into groups and tend to discriminate against those that are different from us. These phenomena were part of the social interaction of Christians in the first century. To better understand the social functioning of the ancient Mediterranean world, this article uses Social Identity Theory to identify and compare the groups in Ephesians. The Jews and Gentiles were the out-groups. In the context of the letter, Gentiles were Artemis-worshippers. The Christians formed the in-group. The identity of the out-groups, to which Christians previously belonged, should be considered to determine the identity of the in-group. The metaphor of the spiritual temple identifies believers as becoming part of the temple at the time of their conversion. Unlike the Jewish temple and the temple of Artemis, which were physical buildings with exclusive membership, the temple of the Holy Spirit is an inclusive unity of believers. The Jewish temple was part of the identity of the Jews, the Artemis temple gave identity to the city of Ephesus and the spiritual temple identifies the unity of the Christian in-group. The Christian-identity, whether in the first century or in contemporary society, is unifying and inclusive regardless of our differences. According to the author of Ephesians Christ-founded and Spirit-driven identity should determine Christian thinking and actions.Contribution: The temple of Artemis and the Jewish temple were places of religious, political, economic and social status and power. The temple of Ephesians 2, however, becomes a spiritual force to which every believer has access apart from political, economic, social, ethnic and gender status. Christian identity and unity are rooted in the redemptive work of Christ.

Muhtar Lutfi ◽  
Eko Jokolelono ◽  
Armin Muis ◽  
Yunus Sading

This study aims to identify the social capital, co-production, and sustainability of KUD (Village Unit Cooperatives) business. It used descriptive research design using primary data obtained from KUD administrators and KUD members through the focus group discussion (FGD). It used FGD because in general KUD activities stopped after being affected by the natural disasters on September 28, 2018, and during the Covid 19 pandemic so that most of the KUD administrators and members were inactive and difficult to find. The findings of this study showed that (1) some KUD businesses have decreased the number of active KUD members, reduced income and SHU (net income) of KUD members due to the natural disasters that damage property and livelihoods of community members, especially members of KUD; (2) The active participation of KUD members has significantly decreased; (3) Only half of the number of KUDs are still running their activities; and (4) Overal, the social capital, co-production, and sustainability variables of KUD business are low.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (11) ◽  
pp. 31
Dimitrios Skiadas ◽  
Sofia Boutsiouki ◽  
Vasileios Koniaris ◽  
Konstantinos Zafiropoulos ◽  
Marianthi Karatsiori

The aim of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) marked the development of the Bologna process since its beginning, while it exercised a decisive influence on the content of the higher education policy initiatives undertaken over the years. One of the most important goals of the relevant policy making was to bridge the university-to-labour market gap and to improve the employability of graduates. Such aims require a consistent and multidimensional cooperation between higher education institutions and the social partners, mainly employers, from which significant benefits may derive for all parties involved. As a result, many types of work based learning have been promoted in higher education with the most prominent of them being the student work experience programmes organised by universities in collaboration with enterprises. The paper analyses the guidelines provided by the EHEA framework with regard to the cooperation between universities and the social partners. Also, it discusses the role that has been attributed to (or claimed by) the social partners regarding work experience programmes. The EHEA institutional framework includes provisions for the participation of social partners in the organisation of work placements, which contribute to students’ skills development and easier transition to employment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 14-51
Laura Kohonen-Aho ◽  
Anna Vatanen

This study explores how ‘gatherings’ turn into ‘encounters’ in a virtu­al world (VW) context. Most communication technologies enable only focused encounters between distributed participants, but in VWs both gatherings and encounters can occur. We present close sequential analysis of moments when after a silent gathering, inter­action among participants in a VW is gradually resumed, and also investigate the social actions in the verbal (re-)opening turns. Our findings show that like in face-to-face situations, also in VWs partici­pants often use different types of embodied resources to achieve the transition, rather than rely on verbal means only. However, the tran­sition process in VWs has distinctive characteristics compared to the one in face-to-face situations. We discuss how participants in a VW use virtually embodied pre-beginnings to display what we call encounter-readiness, instead of displaying lack of presence by avatar stillness. The data comprise 40 episodes of video-recorded team in­teractions in a VW.

2021 ◽  
Vol 96 (11S) ◽  
pp. S179-S180
Rachel S. Chang ◽  
Nicole Kloosterman ◽  
Somtochukwu Ukwuani ◽  
Heidi L. Carpenter ◽  
Bonnie Miller

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