Nutritional Status
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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Maryam Zahid ◽  
Ume Sughra

BACKGROUND Malnutrition is the most common problem in congenital heart diseases patients. Health based mobile applications play an important role in planning and tracking of diet for better nutritional status OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of artificial intelligence on nutritional status of children post cardiac surgery in comparison to usual care group. To assess usefulness of diet related mobile application in comparison to usual care group. METHODS This is a two arm randomized controlled trial that was conducted at a Tertiary Care Hospital, Rawalpindi. The study duration was 6 months from February 2021 till July 2021. Sample size was calculated to be 88. Intervention group was given a diet related mobile application and usual care group was handed a pamphlet with diet instructions on discharge. RESULTS Mean weight of all participants was 15 ± 5.7 kg at the time of discharge whereas at the end of 8th week mean weight of the participants in usual care group was 16.5 ± 7.2 kg and intervention group was 17.1 ± 5 kg. Average calories consumed by usual care group was 972 ± 252 kcal and 1000.75 ± 210 kcal by intervention group after 8 weeks of discharge. Average proteins consumed by the usual care group was 34.3 ± 12.5 grams and 39± 6.4 grams by intervention group after 8 weeks of discharge. At the end of intervention preferred diet planning tool for 79% of the participants was mobile application. At 8th week 93% of the participants considered the visual cues useful, 80% think that the mobile application language was understandable, 79% of the participants think nutritional goal setting is a useful feature in mobile application and 55% of the participants think the recipes in the application were useful. CONCLUSIONS The study showed strength for the future of scalable modern technology for self-nutrition monitoring. There was slight increase in the weight and nutritional intake of both groups as interventions period was limited. CLINICALTRIAL Study was registered on clinicaltrial.gov website with trial identity number NCT04782635.


2022 ◽  
Vol 48 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Kebebe Bidira ◽  
Dessalegn Tamiru ◽  
Tefera Belachew

Abstract Background Under-nutrition is a global problem and one of the most serious public health issues. Globally, 156 million under-five children were stunted, and 50 million were wasted in 2016. Malnutrition among preschool-age children is caused by low socioeconomic status, food insecurity, poor feeding practices, and infectious diseases. This intervention aimed to evaluate the effect of nutrition education delivered through trained health professionals in improving the nutritional status of preschool -aged children. Methods A quasi-experimental design among 588 preschool –aged children was used. A multistage sampling technique followed by a systematic random sampling technique was used to identify caregivers with preschool-aged children. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data. The baseline difference in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics between the two groups was examined using a chi-square test and an independent sample t-test was used to determine the mean difference in under-nutrition between the intervention and control groups. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to determine the change in the difference in outcome between the intervention and control groups as well as the association of predictors with under-nutrition in children. The Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals was reported to show the strength of the association. Variables with a p-value of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant in multivariable analysis. Results In this study, the nutritional status of preschool age children was significantly associated with nutrition education intervention [AOR = 0.566, 95% CI: (0.347, 0.923)], place of delivery [AOR = 0.724, 95% CI: (0.551, 0.951)], ARI in the last 2 weeks [AOR = 1.823, 95% CI: (1.226, 2.710)], source of drinking water [AOR = 0.624, 95% CI: (0.484, 0.805)] and household food security [AOR = 1.311, 95% CI: (1.030, 1.669)] . Conclusions Findings of this study showed that nutrition education can effectively reduce the magnitude of under-nutrition among preschool children. Under-nutrition was e significantly associated with nutritional education, place of delivery, ARI in the last 2 weeks, source of drinking water, and food security. Therefore, both government and non-government should consider the impacts of nutrition education to alleviate under-nutrition and improve the health status of preschool-age children.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 98-105
Author(s):  
Maulik S. Bhadania ◽  
Hasmukh B. Vora ◽  
Nikhil Jillawar ◽  
Premal R. Desai

Background: Corrosive ingestion can cause severe chemical injury to upper gastrointestinal tract which leads to dysphagia, malnutrition and weight loss. Early nutritional assessment and support through feeding jejunostomy is important and it should be nutritionally optimum and economically balanced. The aim is to compare cost and nutritional status after nutritional support with traditional home kitchen made and commercial formula feed through feeding jejunostomy.Methods:A prospective study included patients on enteral nutrition based on traditional home kitchen feed (cohort-1) and on commercial formula feed (cohort-2). Patient’s body weight, BMI, haemoglobin, serum albumin, nutritional risk index, controlling nutritional status score were checked at the admission, 3rd and 6th month follow up.Results: In cohort 1 mean albumin and haemoglobin raised by 33.13% & 14.60% at 3rd month and 47.23% & 22.3% at 6th month respectively; In cohort 2 it was 9.12% & 2.69% at 3rd month and 17.62% & 6.53% at 6th month respectively. At 6th month in cohort 1 and 2 mean weight gain was 7.56% & 4.0%; mean increase in NRI was 34.78% & 11.5% respectively. Mean CONUT score at six months was better improved in cohort 1 which is 6 to 1 as compared to cohort 2 which was 6 to 3. Mean monthly cost of home-based feeds was significantly lower as compared to commercial feeds (62.14 Rs v/s 682-2354 Rs/day).Conclusions:In corrosive GI tract injury patient enteral nutrition with traditional home kitchen-based feeds is safe, cost effective and associated with better improvement in nutritional status objective parameters.


2022 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Author(s):  
Maryam Movahedi ◽  
Somayeh Ghafari ◽  
Elham Vahabi ◽  
Somayeh Haghighat

Background: We aimed to determine the effect of periurethral cleaning before catheterization using chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine on bacteriuria and pyuria. Methods: This study was a single-blind clinical trial on a sample selected by convenience sampling. Demographic and clinical questionnaires were completed, and patients were randomly divided into two groups) 36 patients each of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine using Minimization Software based on confounding variables including age, consciousness level, triage level, nutritional status, and underlying disease. The periurethral areas were cleaned with the given antiseptics and catheterized using standard and sterile procedures. Then, specimens were taken for urinalysis and urine culture immediately, 72 hours, and five days after catheterization. Then, bacteriuria rate, pyuria rate, and the number of microorganisms were determined through examinations. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version 19. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the bacteriuria rate between the two groups immediately (P = 0.76), 72 hours (P = 0.22), and five days (P = 0.50) after catheterization. The positive pyuria rate was not significantly different between the two groups immediately after catheterization. However, it was significantly higher in the povidone-iodine group 72 hours (P = 0.03) and five days (P = 0.004) after catheterization. The Mann-Whitney test compared the mean number of microorganisms between the two groups at different times. This test showed no significant difference in the number of microorganisms immediately (P = 0.93), 72 hours (P = 0.43), and five days (P = 0.61) after catheterization. Conclusions: Due to the lower side effects of chlorhexidine than povidone-iodine, it is suggested that similar studies be performed in other hospital wards with more stable patients to obtain more statistically significant results.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Author(s):  
Antonio Raffo ◽  
Flavio Paoletti

The fresh-cut industry supplies the food market with healthy fresh fruit and vegetables and, in that way, may contribute to improve the nutritional status of the general population. On the other hand, over the last few years increasing concerns have been raised regarding the environmental impact of the fresh-cut industry, human health risks from exposure to disinfection by-products found in fresh-cut products and chlorine-based disinfection treatments during produce processing. This review provides a comprehensive view of the main interlinked aspects related to food safety and environmental impact of processing of fresh-cut vegetables. Advantages and downsides of the mainstream disinfection strategy, based on the use of chlorine-related disinfecting agents, along with some alternative treatments close to a wide commercial application, are discussed. Limitation in the application of these strategies to processing of organic fresh-cut produce are also highlighted, examining the specific environmental and food safety problems in the organic sector. Areas where lack of available information hinders at present a clear understanding of priorities of research and action are pointed out. Innovative conceptual tools are proposed to address these multiple and interlinking issues and to overcome limitations of currently available technologies. A comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach is suggested to move toward a more safe and environmentally sustainable production of fresh-cut products.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Flávio Henrique Silveira Rabêlo ◽  
Felipe dos Santos ◽  
José Lavres ◽  
Luís Alleoni

Abstract Although several grasses have been evaluated for cadmium (Cd) phytoextraction, there are no studies assessing how Cd is accumulated and distributed in the tissues of Panicum maximum grown in mildly polluted soils. The evaluation of tillering, nutritional status and biomass yield of this grass, mainly along successive shoot regrowths, is not well studied so far. Thus, P. maximum Jacq. cv. Massai was grown for two periods in an Oxisol presenting bioavailable Cd concentrations varying from 0.04 (control) to 10.91 mg kg−1 soil. Biomass yield of leaves and stems´ growth have decreased under the highest Cd exposure, but it did not occur in the regrowth period, indicating that Cd-induced toxicity is stronger in the early stages of development of P. maximum. The tillering was not compromised even the basal node presenting Cd concentrations higher than 100 mg kg−1 DW. We identified a restriction on Cd transport upwards from basal node, which was the main local of Cd accumulation. Apparently, P, K, Mg, S and Cu are involved in processes that restrict Cd translocation and confer high tolerance to Cd in P. maximum. The Cd-induced nutritional disorders did not negatively correlate with factors used to calculate phytoextraction efficiency. However, the nutritional adjustments of P. maximum to cope with Cd stress restricted the upward Cd transport, which decreased the phytoextraction efficiency from the available Cd concentration of 5.93 mg kg−1 soil.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yue Zhang ◽  
Shizhuo Lin ◽  
Jianping Wang ◽  
Meiling Tang ◽  
Jianfeng Huang ◽  
...  

Abstract As one of the most abundant ions in cells, potassium (K+) is closely related to plant growth and development and contributes to plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. However molecular mechanisms towards K+ uptake and transport are unclear in tropic fruit trees. In this study, 18 KT/HAK/KUP family genes (MiHAKs) were isolated and characterized in mango. Results showed that MiHAKs were unevenly expressed in distinct tissues and were differentially responded to K+ depletion, PEG, and NaCl stresses in roots, in which K+ depletion and PEG treatment significantly enhanced while NaCl treatment mainly reduced responsive MiHAK genes. In particular, MiHAK14 was the most abundant KT/HAK/KUP family gene in mango, especially in roots. Functional complementation in TK2420 mutant revealed that MiHAK14 could uptake external K+. Moreover, overexpression of MiHAK14 in Arabidopsis enhanced plant tolerance to K+ depletion and NaCl stresses with strengthened K+ nutritional status and ROS scavenging ability. This study provides molecular basis for further functional studies of KT/HAK/KUP transporters in tropic fruit trees, and favorably demonstrates the essentiality of K+ homeostasis in plant tolerance to abiotic stresses, including K+ deficiency and NaCl stress.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Tingting Wang ◽  
Benjamin T. Fuller ◽  
Hongen Jiang ◽  
Wenying Li ◽  
Dong Wei ◽  
...  

AbstractYingpan Man, is one of the most exquisitely preserved mummies found in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. Here links between Yingpan Man and the Silk Road are explored through a detailed isotopic and bioarchaeological investigation of his life history. Analytical techniques of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur stable isotope ratio analysis on hair, teeth, muscle and bones as well as associated animal and plant remains, radiocarbon dating and starch grain analysis of dental calculus are presented to visualize never before seen aspects of Yingpan Man’s life, including: environment, breastfeeding and weaning practices, adolescent and adult diet, disease and nutritional status as well as season of death. Furthermore, in combination with a detailed review of his associated grave goods, this research examines the social status and identity of Yingpan Man, and demonstrates the profound impact and cultural fusion that the Silk Road had upon the peoples of Xinjiang and Eurasia.


Author(s):  
Mohammad Abdul Kuddus ◽  
Atiqur Rahman Sunny ◽  
Mizanur Rahman

This study aimed to assess knowledge and practice of caregivers and its relationship to the disease and nutritional status of children under five years of age in rural areas of Sylhet, Bangladesh. A total of 110 households having 6 to 59 months aged children was selected by simple random method from ten rural communities of three Upazila of Sylhet during September 2019 to February 2020. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the WASH knowledge & practice and multivariate chi-square analyses were performed to assess associations among diseases & nutritional status with WASH following a structured questionnaire. The study found a significant association of WASH with childhood disease and nutritional status, and 65% of children were found to be in a diseased state and 35% of children were found to be in a disease-free state within the last six months. The findings sketched that mother with poor wash knowledge and practice was at greater risk for disease outbreaks, disease frequency and duration. The highest incidence of diarrhea was 17% in children aged 12 to 23 months. Significant effect of WASH was also found in children nutrition status, that was reflected in the ratio of stunted, underweight and wasted children. Integrated convergent work focusing on the provision of clean water within the household, stop open defecation, promotion of hand washing, behavior change and poverty alleviation is needed to improve the situation. Health, nutrition and livelihood programs should be uninterrupted, and mothers or caregivers should be encouraged to participate in these programs.


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