Valuable Metal
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Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (22) ◽  
pp. 6875
Hui Li ◽  
Yutian Fu ◽  
Jinglong Liang ◽  
Chenxiao Li ◽  
Jing Wang ◽  

With the widespread use of lithium-ion batteries, the cumulative amount of used lithium-ion batteries is also increasing year by year. Since waste lithium-ion batteries contain a large amount of valuable metals, the recovery of valuable metals has become one of the current research hotspots. The research uses electrometallurgical technology, and the main methods used are cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, chronoamperometry and open circuit potential. The electrochemical reduction behavior of Ni3+ in NaCl-CaCl2 molten salt was studied, and the electrochemical reduction behavior was further verified by using a Mo cavity electrode. It is determined that the reduction process of Ni3+ in LiNiO2 is mainly divided into two steps: LiNiO2 → NiO → Ni. Through the analysis of electrolysis products under different conditions, when the current value of LiNiO2 is not less than 0.03 A, the electrolysis product after 10 h is metallic Ni. When the current reaches 0.07 A, the current efficiency is 77.9%, while the Li+ in LiNiO2 is enriched in NaCl-CaCl2 molten salt. The method realizes the separation and extraction of the valuable metal Ni in the waste lithium-ion battery.

Jihao Guo ◽  
Hongao Xu ◽  
Bo Li ◽  
Yonggang Wei ◽  
Hua Wang

Abstract Multiple purification of zinc sulfate solution is an important process for zinc hydrometallurgy, and large quantities of copper-cadmium residues are generated as byproducts in this process. Copper-cadmium residues contain a large number of valuable metals that must be recovered. A comprehensive extraction process has been proposed using sulfuric acid as the leaching reagent and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing reagent. The effects of acid concentration, leaching temperature, leaching time, liquid-to-solid ratio, hydrogen peroxide dosage and stirring speed on the leaching efficiency were investigated. The optimum conditions were determined as an acid concentration of 150 g/L, liquid-to-solid ratio of 4:1, hydrogen peroxide amount of 20 mL, time of 60 min, temperature of 30 °C, particle size of −d75 μm, and agitation rate of 300 r/min. It was concluded that the leaching efficiency of copper and cadmium reached 97%, but because of the existence of zinc sulfide in the residues, a lower leaching efficiency of zinc was obtained. Furthermore, the leaching kinetics of copper was also studied based on the shrinking core model. The activation energy for copper leaching was 5.06 kJ/mol, and the leaching process was controlled by the diffusion through the product layer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 143-148
Shubham Gandhi ◽  
Drumil Newaskar ◽  
Rohan Apte ◽  
Preet Aligave

Lithium is one of the foremost valuable metal which is widely used for manufacturing batteries and also has other uses in solar panels, ceramics, glasses and pharmaceuticals. Lithium is third most abundant element after hydrogen and helium but the most lithium deposits are only in Bolivia (21 million tons), Argentina (17 million tons), Chile (9 million tons), Australia (6.8 million tons), China (4.5 million tons). Bolivia, Argentina, Chile forms so called lithium triangle. Due to depleting reserves of fossil fuels and its harmful impact on the environment has forced the globe to shift to Lithium-ion batteries which is much eco-friendlier alternative. India’s push for electric vehicles (EV) may cause a considerable change in its energy security priorities, with securing lithium supplies, a key material for creating batteries, becoming as important as buying oil and gas fields overseas. India doesn't have enough lithium reserves for manufacturing lithium-ion batteries. The majority electric vehicles within the country run on imported batteries, mostly from China. At present a lithium-ion battery accounts for 40% of the overall cost of an electrical vehicle. Khanij Bidesh Pvt Ltd is a venture firm of three central public sector enterprises namely National Aluminum Company (Nalco), Hindustan Copper Ltd (HCL), Mineral Exploration Company Ltd (MECL). The KABIL would do identification, acquisition, exploration, development, mining and processing of strategic minerals overseas for commercial use and meeting country’s requirement of those minerals. The mission is to not allow India to fall in a very vulnerable position with a probable threat of supply squeeze as went on within the case of petroleum, with India being the world’s third largest oil importer and to amass cobalt and lithium mines in addition on get into purchase agreements of those minerals. This may help in achieving resource security with regard to strategic minerals.

Minerals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 1180
Leiming Wang ◽  
Shenghua Yin ◽  
Bona Deng

Liquid is a crucial medium to contain soluble oxygen, valuable metal ions, and bacteria in unsaturated heap leaching. Liquid retention behavior is the first critical issue to be considered to efficiently extract low-grade minerals or wastes. In this study, the residual liquid holdup of an unsaturated packed bed was quantitatively discussed by liquid holdup (θ), residual liquid holdup (θresidual), relative liquid holdup (θ’), and relative porosity (n*) using the designed measuring device. The detailed liquid holdup and the hysteresis behavior under stepwise irrigation are indicated and discussed herein. The results show that relative porosity of the packed bed was negatively related to particle size, and intra-particle porosity was more developed in the −4.0 + 2.0 mm packed bed. The higher liquid retention of the unsaturated packed bed could be obtained by using stepwise irrigation (incrementally improved from 0.001 to 0.1 mm/s) instead of uniform irrigation (0.1 mm/s). It could be explained in that some of the immobile liquid could not flow out of the unsaturated packed bed, and this historical irrigation could have accelerated formation of flow paths. The θ was sensitive to superficial flow rate (or irrigation rate) in that it obviously increased if a higher superficial flow rate (u) was introduced, however, the θresidual was commonly affected by n* and θ’. Moreover, the liquid hysteresis easily performed under stepwise irrigation condition, where θ and θresidual were larger at u of the decreasing flow rate stage (DFRS) instead of u of the increasing flow rate stage (IFRS). These findings effectively quantify the liquid retention and the hysteresis behavior of ore heap, and the stepwise irrigation provides potential possibility to adjust liquid retention conditions.

Metals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1595
Lukas Höber ◽  
Roberto Lerche ◽  
Stefan Steinlechner

In the course of developing an innovative process for CO2-optimised valuable metal recovery from precipitation residues accumulating in the zinc industry or nickel industry, the chlorination reactions were investigated. As the basis of small-scale pyrometallurgical experiments, the selected reaction systems were evaluated by means of thermodynamic calculations. With the help of the thermochemical computation software FactSage (Version 8.0), it is possible to simulate the potential valuable metal recovery from residual materials such as jarosite and goethite. In the course of the described investigations, an algorithmically supported simulation scheme was developed by means of Python 3 programming language. The algorithm determines the optimal process parameters for the chlorination of valuable metals, whereby up to 10,000 scenarios can be processed per iteration. This considers the mutual influences and secondary conditions that are neglected in individual calculations.

G K. Bishimbayeva ◽  
A. M. Nalibayeva ◽  
S. A. Saidullayeva ◽  
A. K. Zhanabaeva ◽  
A. Bold ◽  

Abstract: The metallurgical industry is one of the cornerstones of contemporary chemical science and industry and it is developing rapidly in many countries. The widespread introduction of metal extraction, concentration and separation as the most productive methods entails the need to search for and create new effective metal extractants. Among the compounds, suitable for use as extractants, the most widespread are organic phosphites and phosphates, which allow performing extraction processes with good selectivity and efficiency. The purposes of this article include finalizing the optimal synthesis conditions and developing larger batches of 4,5-dimethyl-2-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane and 5,5-dimethyl-2-(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5- octafluoropentoxy)-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinane, and study of the extraction properties of the obtained phosphorus- containing heterocyclic compounds in the separation of uranium from the commercial desorbate. The synthesis of new representatives of the indicated polyfluoroalkylated five- and six-membered heterocyclic phosphorus compounds was conducted using the interaction of 2-chloro-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane with trifluoroethanol and the substitution–cyclization reaction of polyfluoroalkylated dichlorophosphite with 2,2-dimethyl- 1,3-propanediol. Reactions easily proceed in triethylamine–hexane or pyridine–diethyl ether systems at temperatures ranging between minus ten to room temperature, with the output of target heterocycles of 53–57%. The studies of extraction properties of synthesized poly-fluorinealkylated dioxaphospholane and dioxaphosphorinane show that the use of these phosphorus-containing heterocyclic compounds as extractants allows extracting a technically valuable metal up to 12.4 and 15.2%, respectively. Nitric and sulfuric acid solutions of commercial desorbate of hydrometallurgical production in Kazakhstan were used as feedstock in the extraction process.

2021 ◽  
pp. 128319
Xiaojian Liao ◽  
Maoyou Ye ◽  
Shoupeng Li ◽  
Jialin Liang ◽  
Siyu Zhou ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 116703
Aminul Islam ◽  
Srimonta Roy ◽  
Masud Ali Khan ◽  
Pronoy Mondal ◽  
Siow Hwa Teo ◽  

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