Blast Furnace
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Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 7333
Solmoi Park ◽  
Namkon Lee ◽  
Gi-Hong An ◽  
Kyeong-Taek Koh ◽  
Gum-Sung Ryu

The use of alternative cementitious binders is necessary for producing sustainable concrete. Herein, we study the effect of using alternative cementitious binders in ultra-high-performance concrete (UPHC) by calculating the phase assemblages of UHPC in which Portland cement is replaced with calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, metakaolin or blast furnace slag. The calculation result shows that replacing Portland cement with calcium aluminate cement or calcium sulfoaluminate cement reduces the volume of C-S-H but increases the overall solid volume due to the formation of other phases, such as strätlingite or ettringite. The modeling result predicts that using calcium aluminate cement or calcium sulfoaluminate cement may require more water than it would for plain UHPC, while a similar or lower amount of water is needed for chemical reactions when using blast furnace slag or metakaolin.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Fusheng Niu ◽  
Yukun An ◽  
Jinxia Zhang ◽  
Wen Chen ◽  
Shengtao He

In this study, the influence of steel slag (SS) content on the strength of the cementitious materials was investigated. The quaternary active cementitious material (CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-SO3) was prepared using various proportions of steel slag (SS), granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), and desulfurized gypsum (DG). The mechanism of synergistic excitation hydration of the cementitious materials was examined using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The strength of the mortar test block was initially increased and decreased later with the increase of the SS content. Mortar test block with 20% steel slag, 65% granulated blast furnace slag, and 15% desulfurized gypsum with 0.35 water-binder ratio showed the highest compressive strength of 57.3 MPa on 28 days. The free calcium oxide (f-CaO) in the SS reacted with water and produced calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) which created an alkaline environment. Under the alkaline environment, the alkali-activated reaction occurred with BFS. In the early stage of hydration reaction, calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel and fibrous hydration product ettringite (AFt) crystals were formed, which provided early strength to the cementitious materials. As the hydration reaction progressed, the interlocked growth of C-S-H gel and AFt crystals continued and promoted the increase of the strength of the cementitious system.

B. B. Khaidarov ◽  
D. S. Suvorov ◽  
D. V. Lysov ◽  
A. K. Abramov ◽  
G. G. Luchnikova ◽  

A method for obtaining a finely dispersed fraction of ground blast-furnace granulated slag has been developed. The resulting material with the introduction of an alkaline additive can be offered as an alternative to foreign analogous fine-dispersed mineral binders, an example of which can be microcement. A comprehensive study of granular slags of two metallurgical plants was carried out, the physicochemical characteristics of materials were determined. The possibility of obtaining a fraction of ground granular slag with a particle size of no more than 16 microns using vortex electromagnetic homogenization and subsequent air classification is shown.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 141
Manuel Bailera ◽  
Takao Nakagaki ◽  
Ryoma Kataoka

Background: The Rist diagram is useful for predicting changes in blast furnaces when the operating conditions are modified. In this paper, we revisit this methodology to provide a general model with additions and corrections. The reason for this is to study a new concept proposal that combines oxygen blast furnaces with Power to Gas technology. The latter produces synthetic methane by using renewable electricity and CO2 to partly replace the fossil input in the blast furnace. Carbon is thus continuously recycled in a closed loop and geological storage is avoided. Methods: The new model is validated with three data sets corresponding to (1) an air-blown blast furnace without auxiliary injections, (2) an air-blown blast furnace with pulverized coal injection and (3) an oxygen blast furnace with top gas recycling and pulverized coal injection. The error is below 8% in all cases. Results: Assuming a 280 tHM/h oxygen blast furnace that produces 1154 kgCO2/tHM, we can reduce the CO2 emissions between 6.1% and 7.4% by coupling a 150 MW Power to Gas plant. This produces 21.8 kg/tHM of synthetic methane that replaces 22.8 kg/tHM of coke or 30.2 kg/tHM of coal. The gross energy penalization of the CO2 avoidance is 27.1 MJ/kgCO2 when coke is replaced and 22.4 MJ/kgCO2 when coal is replaced. Considering the energy content of the saved fossil fuel, and the electricity no longer consumed in the air separation unit thanks to the O2 coming from the electrolyzer, the net energy penalizations are 23.1 MJ/kgCO2 and 17.9 MJ/kgCO2, respectively. Discussion: The proposed integration has energy penalizations greater than conventional amine carbon capture (typically 3.7 – 4.8 MJ/kgCO2), but in return it could reduce the economic costs thanks to diminishing the coke/coal consumption, reducing the electricity consumption in the air separation unit, and eliminating the requirement of geological storage.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (23) ◽  
pp. 7285
Yuelin Qin ◽  
Ke Zhang ◽  
Xinlong Wu ◽  
Qingfeng Ling ◽  
Jinglan Hu ◽  

Blast furnace slag, which is the main by-product of the ironmaking process discharged at 1450 °C, contains high-quality sensible heat, while oily sludge is the main solid waste produced in the process of gas exploration, storage, and transportation. The energy and resource utilization of blast furnace slag is complementary to the environmentally friendly treatment of oily sludge, which has provided a new idea for the multi-factor synergistic cycle and energy transformation of the two wastes. The pyrolysis of the oily sludge with the molten blast furnace slag was conducted in the current paper. Results showed that the oily sludge was rapidly pyrolyzed, and the heavy metal elements in the oily sludge were solidified. The solidification rate of the heavy metals exceeds 90%, except for vanadium. The reconstituted water-quenched blast furnace slag still has good activity, and it will not affect the further use of the slag after pyrolysis (BFS-P).

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