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Published By Mdpi Ag

2075-4701

Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 160
Author(s):  
Mahmoud Ahmed El-Sayed ◽  
Khamis Essa ◽  
Hany Hassanin

Entrapped double oxide film defects are known to be the most detrimental defects during the casting of aluminium alloys. In addition, hydrogen dissolved in the aluminium melt was suggested to pass into the defects to expand them and cause hydrogen porosity. In this work, the effect of two important casting parameters (the filtration and hydrogen content) on the properties of Al–7 Si–0.3 Mg alloy castings was studied using a full factorial design of experiments approach. Casting properties such as the Weibull modulus and position parameter of the elongation and the tensile strength were considered as response parameters. The results suggested that adopting 10 PPI filters in the gating system resulted in a considerable boost of the Weibull moduli of the tensile strength and elongation due to the enhanced mould filling conditions that minimised the possibility of oxide film entrainment. In addition, the results showed that reducing the hydrogen content in the castings samples from 0.257 to 0.132 cm3/100 g Al was associated with a noticeable decrease in the size of bifilm defects with a corresponding improvement in the mechanical properties. Such significant effect of the process parameters studied on the casting properties suggests that the more careful and quiescent mould filling practice and the lower the hydrogen level of the casting, the higher the quality and reliability of the castings produced.


Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 159
Author(s):  
Nicholas Olynik ◽  
Bin Cheng ◽  
David J. Sprouster ◽  
Chad M. Parish ◽  
Jason R. Trelewicz

Exploiting grain boundary engineering in the design of alloys for extreme environments provides a promising pathway for enhancing performance relative to coarse-grained counterparts. Due to its attractive properties as a plasma facing material for fusion devices, tungsten presents an opportunity to exploit this approach in addressing the significant materials challenges imposed by the fusion environment. Here, we employ a ternary alloy design approach for stabilizing W against recrystallization and grain growth while simultaneously enhancing its manufacturability through powder metallurgical processing. Mechanical alloying and grain refinement in W-10 at.% Ti-(10,20) at.% Cr alloys are accomplished through high-energy ball milling with transitions in the microstructure mapped as a function of milling time. We demonstrate the multi-modal nature of the resulting nanocrystalline grain structure and its stability up to 1300 °C with the coarser grain size population correlated to transitions in crystallographic texture that result from the preferred slip systems in BCC W. Field-assisted sintering is employed to consolidate the alloy powders into bulk samples, which, due to the deliberately designed compositional features, are shown to retain ultrafine grain structures despite the presence of minor carbides formed during sintering due to carbon impurities in the ball-milled powders.


Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 157
Author(s):  
Timothy Ngeru ◽  
Dzhem Kurtulan ◽  
Ahmet Karkar ◽  
Stefanie Hanke

multiaxial stress states frequently occur in technical components and, due to the multitude of possible load situations and variations in behaviour of different materials, are to date not fully predictable. This is particularly the case when loads lie in the plastic range, when strain accumulation, hardening and softening play a decisive role for the material reaction. This study therefore aims at adding to the understanding of material behaviour under complex load conditions. Fatigue tests conducted under cyclic torsional angles (5°, 7.5°, 10° and 15°), with superimposed axial static compression loads (250 MPa and 350 MPa), were carried out using smooth specimens at room temperature. A high nitrogen alloyed austenitic stainless steel (nickel free), was employed to determine not only the number of cycles to failure but particularly to aid in the understanding of the mechanical material reaction to the multiaxial stresses as well as modes of crack formation and growth. Experimental test results indicate that strain hardening occurs under the compressive strain, while at the same time cyclic softening is observable in the torsional shear stresses. Furthermore, the cracks’ nature is unusual with multiple branching and presence of cracks perpendicular in direction to the surface cracks, indicative of the varying multiaxial stress states across the samples’ cross section as cross slip is activated in different directions. In addition, it is believed that the static compressive stress facilitated the Stage I (mode II) crack to change direction from the axial direction to a plane perpendicular to the specimen’s axis.


Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 158
Author(s):  
Frederik Dahms ◽  
Werner Homberg

Friction-spinning as an innovative incremental forming process enables high degrees of deformation in the field of tube and sheet metal forming due to self-induced heat generation in the forming area. The complex thermomechanical conditions generate non-uniform residual stress distributions. In order to specifically adjust these residual stress distributions, the influence of different process parameters on residual stress distributions in flanges formed by the friction-spinning of tubes is investigated using the design of experiments (DoE) method. The feed rate with an effect of −156 MPa/mm is the dominating control parameter for residual stress depth distribution in steel flange forming, whereas the rotation speed of the workpiece with an effect of 18 MPa/mm dominates the gradient of residual stress generation in the aluminium flange-forming process. A run-to-run predictive control system for the specific adjustment of residual stress distributions is proposed and validated. The predictive model provides an initial solution in the form of a parameter set, and the controlled feedback iteratively approaches the target value with new parameter sets recalculated on the basis of the deviation of the previous run. Residual stress measurements are carried out using the hole-drilling method and X-ray diffraction by the cosα-method.


Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 155
Author(s):  
Feng Su ◽  
Guangtao Xu ◽  
Zhenhua Yao ◽  
Huachen Liu ◽  
Yikun Chen

High density of thermally stable Y-Si-O nanoparticles dispersed in the Fe matrix play a primary role in oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel. In this study, the binding energies of solutes Y, O and Si with vacancies have been calculated in the framework of first-principles density functional theory. According to the calculations, any two solutes of Y, O and Si bound with each other strongly in the second nearest neighboring (NN) sites while not in 1NN. A vacancy (v) bounds strongly with Y and O in 1NN site. The binding sequence of solutes with v followed O-v → Y-v → Si-v, and the affinity of Y, Si and v with O followed O-Y → O-v → O-Si. The nucleation mechanism of Y-O-Si nanoclusters was determined, which gave the feasibility of adding Si to ODS steels. The core (consisting of Si and O)-shell (enriched Fe and Cr) structure of the microparticles was found in ODS steels containing Si, fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) and vacuum sintering. Moreover the nanoparticles of monoclinic cubic Y2O3, Y2SiO5 and Y2Si2O7 with sizes of 5 ~ 12 nm were observed in ODS steel. Si reduced the sintering temperature by maximizing densities and mechanical properties at a lower sintering temperature. The steel with 3 wt% Si was sintered at 1280 °C, exhibiting the best comprehensive mechanical properties. The tensile strength, hardness and relative density were 1025 MPa, 442.44 HV and 95.3%, respectively.


Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 148
Author(s):  
Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy ◽  
Rizwan Wahab

Cancer is a cataclysmic disease that affects not only the target organ, but also the whole body. Metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) have recently emerged as a better option for the treatment of this deadly disease. Accordingly, the present work describes a means to control the growth of cancer cells by using colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) processed via homemade solutions and the characterization of these materials. The AgNPs may become an instantaneous solution for the treatment of these deadly diseases and to minimize or remove these problems. The AgNPs exhibit excellent control of the growth rate of human liver (HepG2) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells, even at a very low concentrations. The cytotoxic effects of AgNPs on HepG2 and MCF-7 cancer cells were dose dependent (2–200 μg/mL), as evaluated using MTT and NRU assays. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased by 136% and 142% in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells treated with AgNPs, respectively. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data for both cell types (HepG2 and MCF-7) after exposure to AgNPs showed up- and downregulation of the expression of apoptotic (p53, Bax, caspase-3) and anti-apoptotic (BCl2) genes; moreover, their roles were described. This work shows that NPs were successfully prepared and controlled the growth of both types of cancer cells.


Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 152
Author(s):  
Peng Peng ◽  
Shaosong Jiang ◽  
Zhonghuan Qin ◽  
Zhen Lu

This work fabricated a double hollow structural component of Mg-8.3Gd-2.9Y-0.8Zn-0.2Zr alloy by superplastic forming (SPF) and reaction-diffusion bonding (RDB). The superplastic characteristic and mechanical properties of Mg-8.3Gd-2.9Y-0.8Zn-0.2Zr alloy sheets at 250–450 °C were studied. Tensile tests showed that the maximum elongation of tensile specimens was about 1276.3% at 400 °C under a strain rate of 1 × 10−3 s−1. Besides, the effect of bonding temperature and interface roughness on microstructure and mechanical properties of the reaction diffusion-bonded joints with a Cu interlayer was investigated. With the increase of temperature, the diffusion coefficient of Cu increases, and the diffusion transition region becomes wider, leading to tightening bonding of the joint. However, the bonding quality of the joint will deteriorate due to grain size growth at higher temperatures. Shear tests showed that the highest strength of the joints was 152 MPa (joint efficiency = 98.7%), which was performed at 460 °C.


Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 153
Author(s):  
Ľubomír Gajdoš ◽  
Martin Šperl ◽  
Jan Kec ◽  
Petr Crha

The aim of this article is to quantify the loads exerted by heavy-duty vehicles when crossing over buried pipeline. This problem arises in connection to the question pertaining to the use of protective sleeves (casings) applied to gas pipelines in regions with increased demands on pipeline operation safety. An experiment was conducted on a test pipe section made from L360NE pipeline steel equipped with strain gauges along the pipe perimeter, measuring strains in the axial and circumferential directions. Strain measurements were taken after back-filling the pipe trench, then during vehicle crossings over the empty pipe, and again after pressurizing the test pipe with air. Strain-based hoop stresses at the surface of the empty test pipe were found to exceed 30 MPa after back-filling the trench and increased to more than 40 MPa during the vehicle crossings. Similarly, axial stresses reached extremes of around 17 MPa in compression and 12 MPa in tension. Applying internal air pressure to the test pipe resulted in a reduced net effect on both the hoop and axial stresses.


Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 154
Author(s):  
Manuela De Maddis ◽  
Vincenzo Lunetto ◽  
Valentino Razza ◽  
Pasquale Russo Spena

The machining of titanium alloys always raises issues because of their peculiar chemical and physical characteristics as compared to traditional steel or aluminum alloys. A proper selection of parameters and their monitoring during the cutting operation makes it possible to minimize the surface roughness and cutting force. In this experimental study, infrared thermography was used as a control parameter of the surface roughness of Ti6A4V in dry finish turning. An analysis of variance was carried out to determine the effect of the main cutting parameters (cutting speed and feed rate) on the surface roughness and cutting temperature. In the examined range of the machining parameters, cutting speed and feed were found to have a primary effect on the surface roughness of the machined parts. Cutting speed also significantly affected the temperature of the cutting region, while feed was of second order. Higher cutting speeds and intermediate feed values gave the best surface roughness. A regression analysis defined some models to relate the cutting temperature and surface roughness to the machining parameters. Infrared thermography demonstrated that the cutting temperature could be related to roughness.


Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 156
Author(s):  
Felipe Klein Fiorentin ◽  
Duarte Maciel ◽  
Jorge Gil ◽  
Miguel Figueiredo ◽  
Filippo Berto ◽  
...  

In recent years, the industrial application of Inconel 625 has grown significantly. This material is a nickel-base alloy, which is well known for its chemical resistance and mechanical properties, especially in high-temperature environments. The fatigue performance of parts produced via Metallic Additive Manufacturing (MAM) heavily rely on their manufacturing parameters. Therefore, it is important to characterize the properties of alloys produced by a given set of parameters. The present work proposes a methodology for characterization of the mechanical properties of MAM parts, including the material production parametrization by Laser Directed Energy Deposition (DED). The methodology consists of the testing of miniaturized specimens, after their production in DED, supported by a numerical model developed and validated by experimental data for stress calculation. An extensive mechanical characterization, with emphasis on high-cycle fatigue, of Inconel 625 produced via DED is herein discussed. The results obtained using miniaturized specimens were in good agreement with standard-sized specimens, therefore validating the applied methodology even in the case of some plastic effects. Regarding the high-cycle fatigue properties, the samples produced via DED presented good fatigue performance, comparable with other competing Metallic Additive Manufactured (MAMed) and conventionally manufactured materials.


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