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Shrey Patel ◽  
Kaashvi Kharawala ◽  

Surfactants are extensively employed in industrial, agricultural, and food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals applications. Chemically produced surfactants cause environmental and toxicological hazards. Recently, considerable research has led to environmentally friendly procedures for the synthesis of several forms of biosurfactants from microorganisms. In comparison to chemical surfactants, biosurfactants have several advantages, such as biodegradability, low toxicity and ease of availability of raw materials. This paper offers an in-depth review of the types of surfactants, the need for bio-surfactants, their types and advantages, especially biodegradability. It also examines the biodegradability of selected four surfactants and finds that the biosurfactant is more easily biodegradable than the chemical surfactants.

2022 ◽  
Vol 318 ◽  
pp. 125930
Farah Anjum ◽  
Muhammad Yasin Naz ◽  
Abdul Ghaffar ◽  
Kashif Kamran ◽  
Shazia Shukrullah ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 216 ◽  
pp. 105256
Xu-Long Zhang ◽  
Yang-Yang Zhao ◽  
Xin-Tan Zhang ◽  
Xiao-Peng Shi ◽  
Xiao-Yan Shi ◽  

Mansour Ghalehnovi ◽  
Naeim Roshan ◽  
Arash Taghizadeh ◽  
Elyas Asadi Shamsabadi ◽  
S. Ali Hadigheh ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 136-177
Lucia García-Guzmán ◽  
Gustavo Cabrera-Barjas ◽  
Cintya G. Soria-Hernández ◽  
Johanna Castaño ◽  
Andrea Y. Guadarrama-Lezama ◽  

The food packaging sector generates large volumes of plastic waste due to the high demand for packaged products with a short shelf-life. Biopolymers such as starch-based materials are a promising alternative to non-renewable resins, offering a sustainable and environmentally friendly food packaging alternative for single-use products. This article provides a chronology of the development of starch-based materials for food packaging. Particular emphasis is placed on the challenges faced in processing these materials using conventional processing techniques for thermoplastics and other emerging techniques such as electrospinning and 3D printing. The improvement of the performance of starch-based materials by blending with other biopolymers, use of micro- and nano-sized reinforcements, and chemical modification of starch is discussed. Finally, an overview of recent developments of these materials in smart food packaging is given.

2022 ◽  
Shujie Yang ◽  
Jianbin Shen ◽  
Tiefei He ◽  
Chao Chen ◽  
Junming Wang ◽  

Abstract Waste paper has become a promising raw material for the pulp and paper industry due to its low cost and because it is conducive to sustainable development. Unfortunately, waste paper contains a high volume of printed paper that is difficult to deink, which restricts its applications. Flotation deinking plays an essential role in the product quality and process cost of wastepaper recycling. This study was performed to evaluate the deinkability of environmentally friendly offset inks by flotation deinking. For this purpose, three series of four-color inks, namely, hybrid light emitting diode ultraviolet (LED‒UV), LED‒UV, and vegetable oil‒based inks, were printed on white lightweight coated papers under laboratory conditions. The deinking methodology involves repulping, deinking agent treatment, flotation, hand sheet making, and evaluation of the produced hand sheets. The obtained results indicated that the hybrid LED‒UV prints had the best deinkability. After flotation deinking, the deinking efficiency and the whiteness of the hybrid LED‒UV ink increased by 58.1% and 47.6%, respectively. LED‒UV ink had a 46.9% increase in the deinking efficiency and a 37.0% increase in the whiteness of the hand sheet. The deinking efficiency of the vegetable oil‒based ink was the lowest, at 42.1%, and the whiteness of the hand sheet increased only by 23.8%. The particle size distribution analysis demonstrated that the hybrid LED‒UV four-color ink exhibited a larger value of the average particle size than the two other. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the hybrid LED‒UV ink particles on the surface of the fibers were the least abundant after deinking. The physical strength properties of the hand sheets, including tensile index, folding resistance, and cohesion of the hybrid LED‒UV, LED‒UV inks, and vegetable oil‒based inks, increased.

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