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2022 ◽  
Vol 55 (1) ◽  
David P. Hoogerheide ◽  
Joseph A. Dura ◽  
Brian B. Maranville ◽  
Charles F. Majkrzak

Liquid cells are an increasingly common sample environment for neutron reflectometry experiments and are critical for measuring the properties of materials at solid/liquid interfaces. Background scattering determines the maximum useful scattering vector, and hence the spatial resolution, of the neutron reflectometry measurement. The primary sources of background are the liquid in the cell reservoir and the materials forming the liquid cell itself. Thus, characterization and mitigation of these background sources are necessary for improvements in the signal-to-background ratio and resolution of neutron reflectometry measurements employing liquid cells. Single-crystal silicon is a common material used for liquid cells due to its low incoherent scattering cross section for neutrons, and the path lengths of the neutron beam through silicon can be several centimetres in modern cell designs. Here, a liquid cell is constructed with a sub-50 µm thick liquid reservoir encased in single-crystal silicon. It is shown that, at high scattering vectors, inelastic scattering from silicon represents a significant portion of the scattering background and is, moreover, structured, confounding efforts to correct for it by established background subtraction techniques. A significant improvement in the measurement quality is achieved using energy-analyzed detection. Energy-analyzed detection reduces the scattering background from silicon by nearly an order of magnitude, and from fluids such as air and liquids by smaller but significant factors. Combining thin liquid reservoirs with energy-analyzed detection and the high flux of the CANDOR polychromatic reflectometer at the NIST Center for Neutron Research, a background-subtracted neutron reflectivity smaller than 10−8 from a liquid cell sample is reported.

Jiantao Tang ◽  
Leidanyang Wang ◽  
Changhao Tian ◽  
Chunguang Chen ◽  
Tao Huang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Brandon Robin ◽  
Marion Nicol ◽  
Hung Le ◽  
Ali Tahrioui ◽  
Annick Schaumann ◽  

Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as one of the most problematic bacterial pathogens responsible for hospital-acquired and community infections worldwide. Besides its high capacity to acquire antibiotic resistance mechanisms, it also presents high adhesion abilities on inert and living surfaces leading to biofilm development. This lifestyle confers additional protection against various treatments and allows it to persist for long periods in various hospital niches. Due to their remarkable antimicrobial tolerance, A. baumannii biofilms are difficult to control and ultimately eradicate. Further insights into the mechanism of biofilm development will help to overcome this challenge and to develop novel antibiofilm strategies. To unravel critical determinants of this sessile lifestyle, the proteomic profiles of two A. baumannii strains (ATTC17978 and SDF) grown in planktonic stationary phase or in mature solid–liquid (S-L) biofilm were compared using a semiquantitative proteomic study. Of interest, among the 69 common proteins determinants accumulated in the two strains at the S-L interface, we sorted out the MacAB-TolC system. This tripartite efflux pump played a role in A. baumannii biofilm formation as demonstrated by using ΔmacAB-tolC deletion mutant. Complementary approaches allowed us to get an overview of the impact of macAB-tolC deletion in A. baumannii physiology. Indeed, this efflux pump appeared to be involved in the envelope stress response occurring in mature biofilm. It contributes to maintain wild type (WT) membrane rigidity and provides tolerance to high osmolarity conditions. In addition, this system is probably involved in the maintenance of iron and sulfur homeostasis. MacAB-TolC might help this pathogen face and adapt to deleterious conditions occurring in mature biofilms. Increasing our knowledge of A. baumannii biofilm formation will undoubtedly help us develop new therapeutic strategies to tackle this emerging threat to human health.

Fan Yang ◽  
Yuting Li ◽  
Zhaofan Yue ◽  
Qingbo Fan ◽  
Hao Li ◽  

Abstract Solid-liquid composite lubrication system has attracted an increased interest for low friction and wear. Nevertheless, the effect of mechanical and surface properties of the solid materials, especially the mechanical and surface properties governed by doping elements, on the tribological performance solid-liquid composite lubrication system is still not well comprehended. Here, we reported the effect of W content on the mechanical and surface properties of W-DLC coatings as well as the tribological properties of W-DLC coatings under (choline chloride-urea and choline chloride-thiourea) deep eutectic solvents lubrication. Although the wear of W-DLC coatings under dry friction increases with W content, the wear under DESs is slight when coatings show excellent wettability to DESs or a DES-derived tribochemical film is formed. We demonstrate that the tribological behavior of W-DLC and DESs composite lubrication system is related to the mechanical properties of W-DLC coatings together with the contact angle and tribochemical interaction between DESs and W-DLC coatings.

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