Energy control strategy is a key technology of hybrid electric vehicle, and its control effect directly affects the overall performance of the vehicle. The current control strategy has some shortcomings such as poor adaptability and poor real-time performance. Therefore, a transient energy control strategy based on terminal neural network is proposed. Firstly, based on the definition of instantaneous control strategy, the equivalent fuel consumption of power battery was calculated, and the objective function of the minimum instantaneous equivalent fuel consumption control strategy was established. Then, for solving the time-varying nonlinear equations used to control the torque output, a terminal recursive neural network calculation method using BARRIER functions is designed. The convergence characteristic is analyzed according to the activation function graph, and then the stability of the model is analyzed and the time efficiency of the error converging to zero is deduced. Using ADVISOR software, the hybrid power system model is simulated under two typical operating conditions. Simulation results show that the hybrid electric vehicle using the proposed instantaneous energy control strategy can not only ensure fuel economy but also shorten the control reaction time and effectively improve the real-time performance.