optimal energy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. 758-773
Ahmed Fathy ◽  
Turki M. Alanazi ◽  
Hegazy Rezk ◽  
Dalia Yousri

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 509
Filip Patrčević ◽  
Damir Dović ◽  
Ivan Horvat ◽  
Petar Filipović

This paper presents the methodology for conducting a cost-optimal energy performance calculation of a solar hot water system, used for space heating and domestic hot water needs. The calculation is based on dynamic hourly methods, according to the new Energy Performance of Buildings’ (EPB) set of standards EN 15316:2017, and a revision of the standard EN 15316-5:2017 from the year 2021, dealing with storage-tank water temperature calculations. The paper provides proposals for modifications to these newly introduced standards, in order to overcome the observed ambiguities and shortcomings. The calculation of annual energy performance of a building was performed on an hourly basis over a year for the reference of an nZEB multi-apartment building, for a climate area of the city of Zagreb, taking into account water temperature change in the layers of the storage tank connected to solar collectors and hot water boilers. The cost-optimal solution was then determined by varying individual parameters of the building technical system. The influence of these parameters on the energy efficiency of the building was analyzed in detail. Furthermore, the results were compared against those obtained by the Croatian calculation algorithm based on the previous set of EPB standards, EN 15316:2008, currently used EU-wide for the energy performance certification of buildings. The results indicated that the calculation methods of the present algorithm underestimated the consumption of building primary energy by 12%. The energy delivered by solar collectors was underestimated by 18%.

Pengfei Zou ◽  
Fazhan Tao ◽  
Zhumu Fu ◽  
Pengju Si ◽  
Chao Ma

In this paper, the hybrid electric vehicle is equipped with fuel cell/battery/supercapacitor as the research object, the optimal energy management strategy (EMS) is proposed by combining wavelet transform (WT) method and equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) for reducing hydrogen consumption and prolonging the lifespan of power sources. Firstly, the WT method is employed to separate power demand of vehicles into high-frequency part supplied by supercapacitor and low-frequency part allocated to fuel cell and battery, which can effectively reduce the fluctuation of fuel cell and battery to prolong their lifespan. Then, considering the low-frequency power, the optimal SOC of battery is used to design the equivalent factor of the ECMS method to improve the fuel economy. The proposed hierarchical EMS can realize a trade-off between the lifespan of power sources and fuel economy of vehicles. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed EMS is verified by ADVISOR, and comparison results are given compared with the traditional ECMS method and ECMS combining the filter.

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