Background: Since progesterone alone does not seem to be enough for luteal phase support (LPS), especially in frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles, so gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) is suggested as an adjuvant therapy in combination with progesterone for LPS.
Objective: To evaluate the effects of the administration of GnRH agonists with vaginal progesterone compared to vaginal progesterone alone in luteal phase support of the frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles.
Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 240 infertile women who were candidates for FET were evaluated into two groups (n = 120/each). Group I received 400 mg vaginal progesterone twice a day from the time of transfer. The second group received vaginal progesterone and also 0.1 mg diphereline on days 0, 3, and 6 of FET for LPS. Finally, the clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates, and the implantation, and spontaneous abortion rates were compared in two groups.
Results: Results showed that there was no significant difference between the mean age of women and the duration of infertility (p = 0.78, p = 0.58, respectively). There were no significant differences between groups in the terms of implantation and spontaneous abortion rates (p = 0.19, p = 0.31, respectively). However, in terms of clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates, the significant differences were seen between groups (p = 0.008 and p = 0.005, respectively).
Conclusion: Co-administration of GnRH-a and vaginal progesterone in LPS may be superior to vaginal progesterone alone in women who underwent a frozen-selected embryo transfer cycle.
Key words: Luteal phase, Fertilization in vitro, Embryo transfer.
It has been shown that in controlled ovarian hyper stimulation cycles, defective luteal phase is common. There are many protocols for improving pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing fresh and frozen in vitro fertilization cycles. These approaches include progesterone supplements, human chorionic gonadotropin, estradiol, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, and recombinant luteinizing hormone. The main challenge is luteal-phase support (LPS) in cycles with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triggering. There is still controversy about the optimal component and time for starting LPS in assisted reproductive technology cycles. This review aims to summarize the various protocols suggested for LPS in in vitro fertilization cycles.
Key words: Luteal-phase support, IVF, HCG, Progesterone, GnRH agonist, Recombinant LH.