live birth rate
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Ulrike Friebe-Hoffmann ◽  
Larissa Dobravsky ◽  
Thomas W. P. Friedl ◽  
Wolfgang Janni ◽  
Alexander J. Knippel ◽  

Abstract Purpose A short fetal femur in prenatal diagnosis might be an indicator for intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), a genetically determined small child (SGA) with or without associated fetal malformations and/or an adverse fetal outcome. Methods 1373 singleton pregnancies with a femoral length < 5th percentile detected between 1999 and 2015 during second-trimester screening in a tertiary prenatal diagnostic center were subjected to a descriptive retrospective analysis with regard to fetal characteristics as well as pregnancy outcome. Results 685 (49.9%) fetuses presented an isolated short femur, while 688 (50.1%) showed additional abnormalities. 293 (42.6%) of those were SGA babies without any malformation, while 395 (57.4%) had one or more severe anomaly of the following organ systems: 157 (11.5%) cardiovascular, 101 (7.4%) musculoskeletal, 82 (6.0%) urogenital, 72 (5.2%) cerebrocephalic, 50 (3.6%) gastrointestinal, and 5 (0.4%) thoracic. 75 (5.5%) of the fetuses showed chromosomal aberrations of which Trisomy 13, 18 and 21 were found in 2, 13 and 27 of the cases, respectively. Fetuses with associated malformations had a significantly lower live birth rate than those without (64.2% vs. 98.1%, p < 0.001); in addition, a higher rate of preterm births 36.6% vs. 11.3%, p < 0.001) and SGA babies (51.4% vs. 30.4%, p < 0.001) were observed in the first collective. Conclusion Diagnosis of a short fetal femur should lead to an extended organ screening; in the case of associated abnormalities, additional genetic testing has to be offered, as well as intensified pregnancy monitoring in pregnancies at risk for IUGR and/or preterm birth.

2022 ◽  
Jennifer K. Y. Ko ◽  
Jinghua Shi ◽  
Raymond H. W. Li ◽  
William S. B. Yeung ◽  
Ernest H. Y. Ng

Objective: Vitamin D receptors are present in the female reproductive tract. Studies on the association between serum vitamin D level and pregnancy rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) showed inconsistent results and focused on a single fresh or frozen embryo transfer cycle. The objective of our study was to evaluate if serum vitamin D level before ovarian stimulation was associated with the cumulative live birth rate (CLBR) of the first IVF cycle. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: Women who underwent the first IVF cycle from 2012 to 2016 at a university-affiliated reproductive medicine center were included. Archived serum samples taken before ovarian stimulation were analyzed for 25(OH)D levels using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: 1,113 had pregnancy outcome from the completed IVF cycle. The median age (25th-75th percentile) of the women was 36 (34-38) years and serum 25(OH)D level was 53.4 (41.9-66.6)nmol/L. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (less than 50nmol/L) was 42.2%. The CLBR in the vitamin D deficient group was significantly lower compared to the non-deficient group (43.9%,208/474 vs 50.9%,325/639, p=0.021, unadjusted), and after controlling for women’s age, body mass index, antral follicle count, type and duration of infertility. There were no differences in the clinical/ongoing pregnancy rate, live birth rate and miscarriage rate in the fresh cycle between the vitamin D deficient and non-deficient groups. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent in infertile women in subtropical Hong Kong. The CLBR of the first IVF cycle in the vitamin D deficient group was significantly lower compared to the non-deficient group.

2021 ◽  
Zhanhui Ou ◽  
Yu Deng ◽  
Yunhao Liang ◽  
Zhiheng Chen ◽  
Ling Sun

Abstract Background: To evaluate the ability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to conduct preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) for thalassemia using affected embryos. Methods: This study included data from 36 couples who underwent PGT for thalassemia without proband and relative pedigrees. NGS results were compared with prenatal diagnosis results.Results: Thirty-six couples (29 α-thalassemia and 7 β-thalassemia) underwent 41 PGT cycles (31 α-thalassemia and 10 β-thalassemia). All biopsied blastocysts received conclusive results from NGS analysis (100%, 217/217). One hundred and sixty (73.7%, 160/217) were determined to be unaffected by thalassemia. PGT-A (PGT for aneuploidy) results showed that 112 (70.0%, 112/160) were euploid. Thirty-four couples were transferred with a single blastocyst (53 frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles). Thirty-two cycles resulted in clinical pregnancies, and the clinical pregnancy rate was 60.1% (32/53) per FET cycle. Twenty-two cycles (22 couples) resulted in 23 live births and the live birth rate was 43.4% (23/53, 3 cycles were ongoing pregnancy). All 25 cycles’ prenatal diagnosis results and/or thalassemia gene analysis after the delivery were concordant with the NGS-PGT results. Seven cycles were miscarried before 12 weeks’ gestation, and the abortion villus in four cycles showed a normal karyotype and thalassemia results consistent with the NGS-PGT results. Aborted fetus samples from 3 cycles were not available because the pregnancy was less than 5 weeks.Conclusion: NGS can be used to conduct PGT for thalassemia using affected embryos as a reference.Trial registration: Retrospectively registered.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lei Jiang ◽  
Xin Xu ◽  
Ziyu Cao ◽  
Ni Yang ◽  
Shaoqing Wang ◽  

ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of two treatments on the outcome of freeze-thaw embryo transfer for pregnancy assistance in thin endometrium.MethodsA retrospective study was conducted on 66 patients who failed in the first cycle treated in the reproductive medicine center of the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from January 2018 to December 2019. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was used through cavity infusion in one group (n=25, and growth hormone (GH) was subcutaneously injected in the group (n=41). The clinical data of the two groups were compared, including morphology and thickness of the endometrium, biochemical pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, implantation rate, miscarriage rate, and live birth rate in each period of the hormone replacement cycle.ResultsThere was no significant difference in age, BMI, AMH, FSH, LH, E2, infertility years, number of transferred embryos, basal endometrium, and thickness of endometrium on the day of P administration before and after treatment (P&gt; 0.05). After treatment, compared to the GH group, the G-CSF group presented higher biochemical pregnancy rate (56% versus 48.8%; P=0.569), clinical pregnancy rate (52% versus 46.3%; P=0.655), implantation rate (34.8% versus 27.5%; P=0.391), and live birth rate (40% versus 31.7%; P=0.493), but the differences were not statistically significant (P &gt; 0.05). On the 5th day of treatment, the endometrial thickness in the G-CSF group was thinner than that in the GH group (4.83 ± 0.85 versus 5.75 ± 1.27; P&lt; 0.05), but it had no correlation with pregnancy outcome (P &gt; 0.05). There was no significant difference in endometrial thickness between the two groups on the 7th, 9th day of treatment and the day of P administration (P &gt; 0.05). On the 5th day of treatment, the proportion of endometrial type A morphology in the GH group was significantly higher than that in the G-CSF group (P &lt; 0.05), while the type B morphology in the G-CSF group was significantly higher than that in the GH group (P&lt; 0.05).ConclusionAlthough G-CSF and GH may not have a role in increasing endometrium, both of them can improve the pregnancy outcomes of patients with thin endometrium in the FET cycle. And the effects of the two treatments were similar.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (4) ◽  
pp. 361-366
Alina Elena BORDEA ◽  
Elvira BRATILA ◽  
Diana MIHAI ◽  

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate how can we predict success in poor responder patients in terms of pregnancy rate and live birth rate. Material and method: This study is a review of the newest papers that have in the center the poor responders undergoing treatment involving assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Outcomes: The results show that the most reliable factors when counseling a poor responder patient are age and Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level. Conclusions: The most important factors that influence pregnancy rate are age and ovarian reserve, but other factors such as male pathology and laboratory techniques must be studied deeper.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Bijun Wang ◽  
Wenxia Liu ◽  
Yi Liu ◽  
Wen Zhang ◽  
Chenchen Ren ◽  

Unlike poor ovarian response, despite being predicted to be normal responders based on their ovarian reserve markers, many patients respond suboptimally to ovarian stimulation. Although we can improve the number of retrieved oocytes by increasing the recombinant FSH dose and adding LH, the effect of suboptimal ovarian response on cumulative live birth rate (CLBR) and offspring safety is unclear. This study focuses on the unexpected suboptimal response during ovulation induction, and its causes and outcomes are analysed for the first time with a large amount of data used to compare the cumulative pregnancy rate (CPR), CLBR and offspring safety of patients with one complete ART cycle with all embryos used. Our analysis included 5218 patients treated with the GnRH agonist long protocol for their first IVF–embryo transfer (ET) cycles. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether the ovarian response was suboptimal. Propensity score matching (PSM) was utilized for sampling at up to 1:1 nearest-neighbour matching with caliper 0.05 to balance the baseline and improve comparability between the groups. Results showed that age, BMI and basal FSH were independent risk factors for slow response; the initial dosage of Gn, FSH on the first day of Gn, and LH on the first day of Gn were independent protective factors for suboptimal response. Suboptimal responders were also more likely to have irregular menses. Regarding the clinical pregnancy rate of the fresh IVF/ICSI-ET cycles, the adjusted results of the two groups were not significantly different. There was no difference in the CPR, CLBR, or offspring safety-related data, such as gestational age, preterm delivery rate, birthweight, birth-height and Apgar Scores between the two groups after PSM. Age-related changes in the number of oocytes retrieved from women aged 20–40 years old between the two groups were different, indicating that suboptimal response in elderly patients suggests a decline in ovarian reserve. Although we can now improve the outcomes of suboptimal responders, it increases the cost to the patients and the time to live birth, which requires further attention.

2021 ◽  
Hong Chen ◽  
Zhi qin Chen ◽  
Ernest Hung Yu Ng ◽  
zili sun ◽  
Zheng wang ◽  

Abstract Background: The efficacy and reproductive outcomes of progestin primed ovarian stimulation protocol (PPOS) were previously compared to rarely used ovarian stimulation protocol and also the live birth rate were reported by per embryo transfer rather than cumulative live birth rates (CLBRs). Does the use of PPOS improve the cumulative live birth rates (CLBRs) and shorten time to live birth when compared to long GnRH agonist protocol in women with normal ovarian reserve?Methods: A retrospective cohort study was designed to include women aged<40 with normal ovarian reserve (regular menstrual cycles, FSH <10 IU/L, antral follicle count >5) undergoing IVF from January 2017 to December 2019. The primary outcome was cumulative live birth rates (CLBRs) within 18 months from the day of ovarian stimulation.Results: A total of 995 patients were analyzed. They used either PPOS (n=509) or long GnRH agonist (n=486) protocol at the discretion of the attending physicians. Both groups had almost comparable demographic and cycle stimulation characteristics except for duration of infertility which was shorter in the PPOS group. In the GnRH agonist group 372 cases (77%) completed fresh embryo transfer, resulting into 218 clinical pregnancies and 179 live birth. The clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth per transfer were 58.6%, 54.0%, 53.0% respectively. In the PPOS, no fresh transfer was carried out. During the study period, the total number of initiated FET cycles with thawed embryos was 665 in the PPOS group and 259 in the long agonist group. Of all FET cycles, a total of 206/662 (31.1%) cycles resulted in a live birth in the PPOS group versus 110/257 (42.8%) in the long agonist group (OR: 0.727; 95% CI: 0.607–0.871; p<0.001) .The implantation rate of total FET cycles was also lower in the PPOS group compared with that in the agonist group 293/1004 (29.2%) and 157/455 (34.5%) (OR: 0.846; 95% CI: 0.721–0.992; p= 0.041). Cumulative live birth rates after one complete IVF cycle including fresh and subsequent frozen embryo cycles within 18 months follow up were significantly lower in the PPOS group compared that in the long agonist group 206/509 (40.5%) and 307/486 (63.2%), respectively (OR: 0.641; 95% CI: 0.565-0.726). The average time from ovarian stimulation to pregnancy and live birth was significantly shorter in the long agonist group compared to the PPOS group (p<0.01) In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the cumulative incidence of ongoing pregnancy leading to live birth was significantly higher in the long agonist compared in the PPOS group(Log rank test, p<0.001). Cox regression analysis revealed stimulation protocol adopted was strongly associated with the cumulative live birth rate after adjusting other confounding factors (OR =1.917 (1.152-3.190), p=0.012) .Conclusion: Progestin primed ovarian stimulation was associated with a lower cumulative live birth rates and a longer time to pregnancy / live birth than the long agonist protocol in women with a normal ovarian reserve.

Macarena B Gonzalez ◽  
Rebecca L Robker ◽  
Ryan D Rose

Abstract The prevalence of obesity in adults worldwide, and specifically in women of reproductive age, is concerning given the risks to fertility posed by the increased risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and other non-communicable diseases. Obesity has a multi-systemic impact in female physiology that is characterized by the presence of oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, and the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways, inducing tissue-specific insulin resistance and ultimately conducive to abnormal ovarian function. A higher body mass is linked to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, dysregulated menstrual cycles, anovulation, and longer time to pregnancy, even in ovulatory women. In the context of ART, compared to women of normal BMI, obese women have worse outcomes in every step of their journey, resulting in reduced success measured as live birth rate. Even after pregnancy is achieved, obese women have a higher chance of miscarriage, gestational diabetes, pregnancy complications, birth defects, and most worryingly, a higher risk of stillbirth and neonatal death. The potential for compounding effects of ART on pregnancy complications and infant morbidities in obese women has not been studied. There is still much debate in the field on whether these poorer outcomes are mainly driven by defects in oocyte quality, abnormal embryo development or an unaccommodating uterine environment, however the clinical evidence to date suggests a combination of all three are responsible. Animal models of maternal obesity shed light on the mechanisms underlaying the effects of obesity on the peri-conception environment, with recent findings pointing to lipotoxicity in the ovarian environment as a key driver of defects in oocytes that have not only reduced developmental competence but long-lasting effects in offspring health.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Bunpei Ishizuka ◽  
Masataka Furuya ◽  
Machiko Kimura ◽  
Eri Kamioka ◽  
Kazuhiro Kawamura

We analyzed data from 466 patients with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) who wished to have a biological child and were followed up while undergoing hormone replacement (HR) therapy with or without ovarian stimulation (OS) between April 2014 and December 2020. OS was conducted in 6891 cycles in 429 patients (Group OS), whereas only HR (Group HR) was conducted in 1117 cycles in 37 patients. The follicle growth rate was 48.3% (207/429) per patient in Group OS and 5.4% (2/37) in Group HR (p&lt;0.01). There were 51 live births (LBs) in 50 patients during follow-up. In Group OS, the LB rate was 5.8% (47/807) in cycles where in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer were attempted (Group IVF), and 1.3% (3/236) in cycles where intrauterine insemination/timed intercourse was attempted (p&lt;0.01). No pregnancies occurred in Group HR. Among the patients in Group IVF, the LB rate was significantly higher in patients aged &lt;35 years at the initiation of follow-up than in patients who started at later ages (p&lt;0.01). Among the cases who achieved an LB, 39 were patients with idiopathic POI (Group IVF-1, n=297) and seven were patients who had undergone surgical treatment for benign ovarian tumors (Group IVF-2, n=50); however, no LBs occurred in patients who had undergone treatment for malignancy (n=17), and only one in patients with chromosomal abnormalities (n=22). The LB rate per case in the patients in Group IVF-1 and those aged &lt;35 years at the start of follow-up (Group IVF-1-a) was 24.1% (26/108), which was higher than those of the other age groups. The LB rate per case in the patients in Group IVF-1-a with &lt;4 years of amenorrhea was 37.3% (19/51), and that in the patients in Group IVF-2 with &lt;4 years of amenorrhea was 21.2% (7/33). These results suggest that infertility treatment is possible in some patients with POI, especially those that can be classified in Group IVF-1-a and Group IVF-2 with &lt;4 years of amenorrhea. Therefore, OS combined with HR therapy should be considered for such patients before attempts at oocyte donation.

Maria Angeles Roque Fernandez ◽  
Cristina Alvarez Lleo ◽  
Esteban Gonzalez Mirasol ◽  
Maria Resta Serra ◽  
Carmen Garcia Garrido ◽  

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