Background: The Phase III clinical trial of the non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist finerenone (BAY 94-8862) has been completed, aiming to investigate renal and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in type 2 diabetes (T2D) with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the efficacy and safety of finerenone in renal function remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy and safety of finerenone in treating the patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Methods: Databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on patients with DKD receiving finerenone treatment from inception to September 2021. Data including patient characteristics and interested outcomes were extracted, and the dichotomous data and continuous variables were evaluated using risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs, respectively. Results: A total of 4 RCTs involving 13945 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Analysis results demonstrated that patients receiving finerenone showed a significant decrease in changing urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) from baseline (MD: ﹣0.30; 95%CI [﹣0.33, ﹣0.27] P=0.46, I2=0%) (P＜0.05). The number of patients with ≥40% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline in the finerenone group was significantly smaller than that in the placebo group (RR: 0.85; 95%CI [0.78, 0.93] P=0.60, I2=0%) (P＜0.05). No difference was found in adverse events between the finerenone and placebo groups (RR: 1.00; 95%CI [0.98, 1.01] P = 0.94, I2=0%) (P=0.65). The incidence of hyperkalemia was higher in the finerenone group than that in the placebo group (RR: 2.03; 95%CI [1.83, 2.26] P = 0.95, I2=0%) (P＜0.05). Conclusion: Finerenone contributes to the reduction of UACR and can ameliorate the deterioration of renal function in patients with T2D and CKD. The higher risk of hyperkalemia was found in the finerenone group compared with placebo, however, there was no difference in the risk of overall adverse events.
PURPOSE Preclinical data suggest the combination of an anti–programmed death receptor 1 antibody plus dabrafenib and trametinib to have superior antitumor activity compared with dabrafenib plus trametinib alone. These observations are supported by translational evidence suggesting that immune checkpoint inhibitors plus targeted therapy may improve treatment outcomes in patients with BRAF V600–mutant metastatic melanoma. COMBI-i is a phase III trial evaluating spartalizumab, an anti–programmed death receptor 1 antibody, in combination with dabrafenib and trametinib (sparta-DabTram), versus placebo plus dabrafenib and trametinib (placebo-DabTram) in patients with BRAF V600–mutant unresectable or metastatic melanoma. METHODS Patients received spartalizumab 400 mg intravenously every 4 weeks plus dabrafenib 150 mg orally twice daily and trametinib 2 mg orally once daily or placebo-DabTram. Participants were age ≥ 18 years with unresectable or metastatic BRAF V600–mutant melanoma. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. Overall survival was a key secondary end point (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02967692 ). RESULTS At data cutoff (July 1, 2020), the median progression-free survival was 16.2 months (95% CI, 12.7 to 23.9 months) in the sparta-DabTram arm versus 12.0 months (95% CI, 10.2 to 15.4 months) in the placebo-DabTram arm (hazard ratio, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.66 to 1.03]; P = .042 [one-sided; nonsignificant]). The objective response rates were 69% (183 of 267 patients) versus 64% (170 of 265 patients), respectively. Grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 55% (146 of 267) of patients in the sparta-DabTram arm and 33% (88 of 264) in the placebo-DabTram arm. CONCLUSION The study did not meet its primary end point; broad first-line use of sparta-DabTram is not supported by these results. Further biomarker-driven investigation may identify patient subpopulations who could benefit from checkpoint inhibitor plus targeted therapy combinations.
AbstractEpidermal growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (EGFR and HER2) are frequently overexpressed in various malignancies. Lapatinib is a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibits both EGFR and HER2. Although a phase III trial failed to show the survival benefits of lapatinib treatment after first-line chemotherapy in patients with EGFR/HER2-positive metastatic urothelial carcinoma, the efficacy of lapatinib for untreated urothelial carcinoma is not well defined. Here, we describe the therapeutic efficacy of lapatinib as a first-line treatment in a canine model of muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma. In this non-randomized clinical trial, we compared 44 dogs with naturally occurring urothelial carcinoma who received lapatinib and piroxicam, with 42 age-, sex-, and tumor stage-matched dogs that received piroxicam alone. Compared to the dogs treated with piroxicam alone, those administered the lapatinib/piroxicam treatment had a greater reduction in the size of the primary tumor and improved survival. Exploratory analyses showed that HER2 overexpression was associated with response and survival in dogs treated with lapatinib. Our study suggests that lapatinib showed encouraging durable response rates, survival, and tolerability, supporting its therapeutic use for untreated advanced urothelial carcinoma in dogs. The use of lapatinib as a first-line treatment may be investigated further in human patients with urothelial carcinoma.
A significant proportion of patients exhibit sub-optimal response to the standard treatment of acute migraine such as triptans and NSAIDs. Even the conventional preventive therapies (e.g. beta-blockers) indicated for patients with frequent migraine attacks have varying responses. Moreover, evidence from animal studies elucidated the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the pathophysiology of migraine. Currently two classes are drug, the small molecule CGRP receptor antagonist or the ‘gepants’ (Ubrogepant, Rimegepant, Atogepant, Zavegepant) and CGRP monoclonal antibodies (Erenumab, Galcanezumab, Fremanezumab, Eptinezumab) have been found efficacious and safe in various clinical trials for the treatment and prevention of migraine. While the small molecule CGRP receptor antagonists are given orally, the monoclonal antibodies are injectable drugs. Ubrogepant and Rimegepant are the second-generation gepants approved for treatment of migraine. Zavegepant is a third generation gepant which has proven efficacy for acute treatment of migraine in a phase III trial. Atogepant has been approved for prevention of migraine. Rimegepant has also proven to be efficacious for preventing migraine attacks but has not yet been approved for this indication. Erenumab is the only monoclonal antibody which neutralizes the CGRP receptor. The latter three monoclonal antibodies target the CGRP peptide. The monoclonal antibodies have been approved for the prevention of migraine as a subcutaneously or intravenous infusion (Eptinezumab) given once a month or quarterly. Both the classes of drugs were well-tolerated in the clinical trials. Nausea was the most common adverse effect with gepants while injection-site pain was commonly reported with the antibodies.