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2021 ◽  
Hong Chen ◽  
Zhi qin Chen ◽  
Ernest Hung Yu Ng ◽  
zili sun ◽  
Zheng wang ◽  

Abstract Background: The efficacy and reproductive outcomes of progestin primed ovarian stimulation protocol (PPOS) were previously compared to rarely used ovarian stimulation protocol and also the live birth rate were reported by per embryo transfer rather than cumulative live birth rates (CLBRs). Does the use of PPOS improve the cumulative live birth rates (CLBRs) and shorten time to live birth when compared to long GnRH agonist protocol in women with normal ovarian reserve?Methods: A retrospective cohort study was designed to include women aged<40 with normal ovarian reserve (regular menstrual cycles, FSH <10 IU/L, antral follicle count >5) undergoing IVF from January 2017 to December 2019. The primary outcome was cumulative live birth rates (CLBRs) within 18 months from the day of ovarian stimulation.Results: A total of 995 patients were analyzed. They used either PPOS (n=509) or long GnRH agonist (n=486) protocol at the discretion of the attending physicians. Both groups had almost comparable demographic and cycle stimulation characteristics except for duration of infertility which was shorter in the PPOS group. In the GnRH agonist group 372 cases (77%) completed fresh embryo transfer, resulting into 218 clinical pregnancies and 179 live birth. The clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth per transfer were 58.6%, 54.0%, 53.0% respectively. In the PPOS, no fresh transfer was carried out. During the study period, the total number of initiated FET cycles with thawed embryos was 665 in the PPOS group and 259 in the long agonist group. Of all FET cycles, a total of 206/662 (31.1%) cycles resulted in a live birth in the PPOS group versus 110/257 (42.8%) in the long agonist group (OR: 0.727; 95% CI: 0.607–0.871; p<0.001) .The implantation rate of total FET cycles was also lower in the PPOS group compared with that in the agonist group 293/1004 (29.2%) and 157/455 (34.5%) (OR: 0.846; 95% CI: 0.721–0.992; p= 0.041). Cumulative live birth rates after one complete IVF cycle including fresh and subsequent frozen embryo cycles within 18 months follow up were significantly lower in the PPOS group compared that in the long agonist group 206/509 (40.5%) and 307/486 (63.2%), respectively (OR: 0.641; 95% CI: 0.565-0.726). The average time from ovarian stimulation to pregnancy and live birth was significantly shorter in the long agonist group compared to the PPOS group (p<0.01) In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the cumulative incidence of ongoing pregnancy leading to live birth was significantly higher in the long agonist compared in the PPOS group(Log rank test, p<0.001). Cox regression analysis revealed stimulation protocol adopted was strongly associated with the cumulative live birth rate after adjusting other confounding factors (OR =1.917 (1.152-3.190), p=0.012) .Conclusion: Progestin primed ovarian stimulation was associated with a lower cumulative live birth rates and a longer time to pregnancy / live birth than the long agonist protocol in women with a normal ovarian reserve.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Yiqing Yang ◽  
Bowen Liu ◽  
Gengxiang Wu ◽  
Jing Yang

Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder with the disorders of estrogen(E2) and progesterone(P) secretion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the progesterone level or progesterone/estradiol(P/E2) ratio on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger day and the outcome of in vitro fertilization in PCOS patients and explore the value of progesterone and P/E2 ratio for predicting the clinical pregnancy. Methods The clinical data of 1254 PCOS patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria were retrospectively analyzed, including baseline characteristics such as age, body mass index, basal sex hormone levels, et al., as well as ovarian stimulation data and clinic outcome. Results The number of follicles larger than 14 mm in diameter (P < 0.001) and retrieved oocytes (P < 0.001) was greater in the high progesterone group (progesterone ≥ 0.92 ng/mL). In the high P/E2 group(P/E2 ratio ≥ 0.3), the number of follicles larger than 14 mm in diameter (P < 0.001) and retrieved oocytes (P < 0.001), as well as the rate of high-quality embryos (P = 0.040) were significantly decreased. In ultralong GnRH agonist protocol, the implantation rate(P < 0.001), hCG positive rate (P < 0.001), clinical pregnancy rate (P < 0.001) and live birth rate (P < 0.001) were all significantly higher than long GnRH agonist protocol and GnRH antagonist protocol. The clinical pregnancy rate of high progesterone group was significantly lower than that of low progesterone group in ultralong GnRH agonist (P = 0.008). The progesterone level could be used as an indicator to predict the positive clinical pregnancy (long GnRH agonist: P = 0.001; ultralong GnRH agonist: P < 0.001) except in cycles using GnRH antagonist (P = 0.169). In the ultralong GnRH agonist, the value of progesterone level in the prediction of clinical pregnancy was significantly higher than that of the P/E2 ratio (P = 0.021). Conclusions In PCOS patients, the progesterone level is associated with clinical pregnancy rate while P/E2 ratio is not. In subgroup analysis using three different COS protocols, a significant association between progesterone level and clinical pregnancy rate can be observed in the long GnRH agonist protocol and ultralong GnRH agonist protocol. The progesterone level is significantly better than the P/E2 ratio in predicting the pregnancy outcome of PCOS patients, especially in ultralong GnRH agonist cycles.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Ting-Chi Huang ◽  
Mei-Zen Huang ◽  
Kok-Min Seow ◽  
Ih-Jane Yang ◽  
Song-Po Pan ◽  

AbstractUtilizing corifollitropin alfa in GnRH antagonist (GnRHant) protocol in conjunction with GnRH agonist trigger/freeze-all strategy (corifollitropin alfa/GnRHant protocol) was reported to have satisfactory outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Although lessening in gonadotropin injections, GnRHant were still needed. In addition to using corifollitropin alfa, GnRHant was replaced with an oral progestin as in progestin primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) to further reduce the injection burden in this study. We try to investigate whether this regimen (corifollitropin alfa/PPOS protocol) could effectively reduce GnRHant injections and prevent premature LH surge in PCOS patients undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles. This is a retrospective cohort study recruiting 333 women with PCOS, with body weight between 50 and 70 kg, undergoing first IVF/ICSI cycle between August 2015 and July 2018. We used corifollitropin alfa/GnRHant protocol prior to Jan 2017 (n = 160), then changed to corifollitropin alfa/PPOS protocol (n = 173). All patients received corifollitropin alfa 100 μg on menstruation day 2/3 (S1). Additional rFSH was administered daily from S8. In corifollitropin alfa/GnRHant group, cetrorelix 0.25 mg/day was administered from S5 till the trigger day. In corifollitropin alfa/PPOS group, dydrogesterone 20 mg/day was given from S1 till the trigger day. GnRH agonist was used to trigger maturation of oocyte. All good quality day 5/6 embryos were frozen, and frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) was performed on subsequent cycle. A comparison of clinical outcomes was made between the two protocols. The primary endpoint was the incidence of premature LH surge and none of the patients occurred. Dydrogesterone successfully replace GnRHant to block LH surge while an average of 6.8 days of GnRHant injections were needed in the corifollitropin alfa/GnRHant group. No patients suffered from ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The other clinical outcomes including additional duration/dose of daily gonadotropin administration, number of oocytes retrieved, and fertilization rate were similar between the two groups. The implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and live birth rate in the first FET cycle were also similar between the two groups. In women with PCOS undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment, corifollitropin alfa/PPOS protocol could minimize the injections burden with comparable outcomes to corifollitropin alfa/GnRHant protocol.

2021 ◽  
Sally Kadoura ◽  
Marwan Alhalabi ◽  
Abdul Hakim Nattouf

Abstract BackgroundGonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues are commonly used in clinical practice to prevent premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surge during In-Vitro Fertilization/ Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles. This review aimed to summarize the available evidence comparing the effects of conventional GnRH antagonist protocols, the most commonly used GnRH antagonist protocols, and GnRH agonist protocols on IVF/ICSI outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). MethodsA comprehensive electronic search was carried out in Pubmed, Cochrane CENTRAL, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, TRIP, and ISRCTN registry from inception until 24 November 2020 without any language or date restrictions. In addition, reference lists of eligible studies and previous meta-analyses were hand-searched to identify relevant studies. Eligible randomized controlled trials were those designed to compare the effects of conventional GnRH antagonist protocols and GnRH agonist protocols on IVF/ICSI outcomes in PCOS subjects. The Cochrane ROB 2.0 tool was used to assess the risk of bias of each study, and the GRADE assessment was used to evaluate the overall quality of evidence. Data synthesis and analyses were done using Review Manager 5.3 with the assistance of Revman Web. A random-effects model was used for all meta-analysis. Dichotomous outcomes were reported as Relative Risk (RR) and continuous outcomes as Weighted Mean Difference (WMD), both with 95% CIs. 2 Resultswe included ten studies with 1214 randomized PCOS women. Using GnRH antagonist protocols led to a significantly shorter stimulation duration (WMD=-0.91; 95% CI: [-1.45 to-0.37] day, P=0.0009), lower gonadotropin consumption (WMD=-221.36; 95% CI: [-332.28 to-110.45] IU, P< 0.0001), lower E2 levels on hCG day (WMD=-259.21; 95% CI: [-485.81 to-32.60] pg/ml, P=0.02), thinner endometrial thickness on hCG day (WMD=-0.73; 95% CI: [-1.17 to-0.29] mm, P=0.001), lower number of retrieved oocytes (WMD=-1.82; 95% CI: [-3.48 to-0.15] oocytes, P=0.03), and lower OHSS rate (RR= 0.58; 95% CI: [0.44 to 0.77], P=0.0002). However, no significant differences in live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate and cycle cancellation rate were seen between the GnRH antagonist protocols and the long GnRH agonist one. Although more cycles were cancelled due to poor ovarian response in the GnRH antagonist protocol (RR= 4.63; 95% CI: [1.49 to 14.41], P=0.008), similar rates of cancellation due to risk of OHSS were noticed in both groups. DiscussionThe differences in IVF/ICSI outcomes may arise from the different patterns of gonadotropins suppression that the GnRH analogues exhibit during the early follicular phase of IVF/ICSI cycles and the divergent direct impacts of these analogues on ovaries and endometrial receptivity. The main evidence limitation was Imprecision. ConclusionsConventional GnRH antagonist protocols represent a safer and more cost-effective treatment choice for PCOS women undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles than the standard long GnRH agonist protocol without compromising the IVF/ICSI clinical outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Yen-Ju Sung ◽  
Liang-Hsuan Chen ◽  
Tzu-Hsuan Chin ◽  
Shang-Yu Huang ◽  
Hsing-Tse Yu ◽  

Abstract Background Evidently, when undergoing GnRH-antagonist protocols, dual trigger has proven to produce not just better quality and quantity of oocytes but also pregnancy outcome. However, not much comparative studies have been published when PPOS protocol is used for ovarian stimulation. Can the same positive outcomes be expected after the patients have been exposed to the high level of progesterone required for PPOS protocols? Methods In this retrospective cohort study, patients undergoing PPOS protocols were separated into three groups based on the method employed for triggering final follicular maturation, which included: (a) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); (b) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-agonist (GnRH-agonist); or (c)dual trigger (GnRH-agonist + hCG). Either in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) was utilized for fertilization. Assessment comprised of their dynamic hormone profiles, embryonic analysis, and clinical outcomes. Results Of the 344 recruited patients, those fulfilling the Bologna criteria as poor ovarian responders and showing Estradiol (E2)<1000 pg/ml on the day of triggering had higher oocyte maturation rate (82% vs 58%, p<0.05) when triggered with dual trigger (GnRH-agonist + hCG) than hCG alone. For the patients with E2> 6500 pg/ml on the day of triggering, none of the three triggering methods demonstrated a significant advantage regarding the number of oocytes, percentage of matured oocytes, and rate of oocytes at fertilization or cleavage stages. Conclusions Implementing dual trigger for stimulating final follicular maturation in patients undergoing PPOS protocols is debatable. For poor ovarian response (POR) patients, dual trigger appeared to yield higher percentage of matured oocytes. In contrast, for hyper-responders, methods of triggering oocyte maturation did not affect the percentage of matured oocytes or the qualities of the embryos. For this group of patients, therefore, the agent used should be one that would reduce the risks of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome (OHSS).

2021 ◽  
Jun Wang ◽  
Jing Zhang ◽  
Nan Zhao ◽  
Yuan Ma ◽  
Xiyi Wang ◽  

Abstract Background: Studies in oocytes have suggested increased aneuploidy rates after ovulation induction in mammals and humans. Conversely, some studies have shown that ovarian stimulation does not significantly increase the embryo aneuploidy rate in humans compared with an unstimulated cycle. In addition, the potential effect of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist (GnRH-ant) protocol and GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) long protocol on embryo aneuploidy remains unknown.Methods: This is the retrospective cohort study from university-affiliated fertility center. In total, 578 early miscarriage patients who conceived through IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) after receiving the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist (GnRH-ant) protocol or the GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) long protocol were analyzed to compare the aneuploidy rates in early aborted tissues. In addition, a total of 466 preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) cycles undergoing GnRH-ant protocol or GnRH-a long protocol were also analyzed to compare the aneuploidy rates in embryo.Results: For early miscarriage patients who conceived through IVF/ICSI, compared to the GnRH-a long protocol group, the GnRH-ant protocol group had a significantly higher rate of aneuploidy in early aborted tissues (48.70% vs. 64.52%), and increased aneuploidy was associated with a significantly higher incidence of trisomy 13, 18, and 21 (p<0.01). Regarding PGT-A cycles, compared to the GnRH-a long protocol group, the rate of embryo aneuploidy was also significantly higher in the GnRH-ant protocol group (48.01% vs. 58%). After stratification and multiple linear regression, the GnRH-ant regimen remained significantly associated with an increased risk of aneuploidy in early aborted tissues and embryos [OR (95% CI) 1.767 (1.174, 2.661), OR (95% CI) 1.465 (1.020, 2.102)]. Furthermore, the embryo aneuploidy rate in the GnRH-ant protocol group was significantly higher than that in the GnRH-a long protocol group but only in young and normal ovarian responders [OR (95% CI) 3.54 (1.48, 8.46)].Conclusions: The GnRH-ant protocol is associated with a higher aneuploidy rate in early aborted tissues and embryos than the GnRH-a long protocol in Chinese women. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial would be the optimal strategy to confirm these results.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Sara Liest ◽  
Iben Riishede Christiansen ◽  
Lisbeth Prætorius ◽  
Jeanette Bogstad ◽  
Nina la Cour Freiesleben ◽  

Background: Failed gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist trigger with no oocyte retrieved during aspiration of several follicles is a rare but recurrent situation that can be rescued by the termination of the aspiration procedure, retriggering by human chorion gonadotropin (hCG), and repeated oocyte pickup 36 h later. Failed GnRH agonist trigger is frustrating and unsatisfactory, and fertility doctors must be aware of possible hCG retriggering and retained opportunity for successful cycle outcome.Objective: In this case report, we present a woman who experienced failed GnRH agonist trigger and rescue hCG retrigger followed by two consecutive live births after frozen-thawed single blastocyst transfers.Methods: A case report.Results: Two healthy children were born in 2018 and 2020, respectively as a result of controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF, failed GnRH agonist trigger followed by hCG re-trigger, and successful retrieval of 25 oocytes.Conclusion: Retriggering with hCG after failed GnRH agonist trigger can result in consecutive live births, and such knowledge can prevent cycle cancellation and patient discouragement. Knowledge on retriggering with hCG and consecutive live births after failed GnRH agonist trigger can prevent cycle cancellation and patient discouragement.

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