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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 573-584
Author(s):  
Fábio da Costa Málaga ◽  
◽  
Helloa Alaide Siqueira ◽  
Lucio Pereira Rauber ◽  
Mariana Groke Marques ◽  
...  

In pig farming, measurements of production parameters play a fundamental role in the success of the activity. Minimal differences in fertility between breeders can lead to less reproductive efficiency and, less productivity. However, assessing the fertility of each male and the early identification of subfertile males is a difficult task to be performed. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of in vitro and in vivo parameters in the identification of subfertile males of the Landrace breed, aiming to collaborate with genetic improvement programs, routine optimization in the Genetic Diffusion Units (GDUs) and the results of performance. In experiment 1, an approach to identify males with subfertility was evaluated based on retrospective data. For this, the results (averages of birth rates, number of total births and average percentages of female and male piglets per litter) were evaluated for a total of 996 matings and 847 parturitions. The inseminations came from ejaculates of 32 males, who had at least 19 females inseminated with homospermic doses in the concentration of 2.5 x 109 total sperm from the same male. As for the birth rate (BR), an average of 85.47% ± 6.05 was observed with a group of median males, seven males that stood out and one individual (M32) with a performance of 58.06% ± 9.0. For the total number of piglets born (PB) the average was 13.41 ± 0.56, with three males with better performance and one (M32) with very poor performance (8.62 ± 0.59). In experiment 2, it was verified whether evaluations of inseminating doses (ID) of semen in vitro (motility and sperm morphology) after 96 hours of storage had correlations with fertility in vivo, which can be used to identify subfertile males. The evaluations were performed on 30 ejaculates regarding the means of BR and PB, considering only those who had at least 7 females inseminated. There were no correlations between the motility assessments and semen morphological changes and the reproductive parameters evaluated. The results obtained in vivo, referring to BR and PB, demonstrated that it was possible to identify differences between males, the individual (M32) had the worst results for the percentages of BR and PB. It is concluded that there are males of high and low fertility and that only the in vitro analyzes carried out in this study are not enough to categorize them, however, the evaluation of retrospective data was efficient for this purpose.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Joyce Martin ◽  
Michelle Osterman

This report is limited to singleton births and describes trends in preterm birth rates from 2014 through 2020 and changes in rates between 2019 and 2020 by maternal race and Hispanic origin, age, and state of residence.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 499-507
Author(s):  
Andreanto Andreanto ◽  
Hasbi Yasin ◽  
Agus Rusgiyono

The population problem is a fairly complex and complicated problem. Therefore, Indonesia seeks to control the birth rate with the Family Planning program. The implementation of this program can be evaluated through statistical data. The statistical analysis used is biplot principal component analysis to see the relationship between districts/cities in choosing the contraceptive device/method used, the variance of each contraceptive device/method, the correlation between contraceptive devices/methods, and the superiority value of the contraceptive device/method in the population. each district/city. The problem with performing the analysis is the limitations of easy-to-use open source software. As with R, users must understand writing code to perform data analysis. Therefore, to perform a biplot analysis of the principal components, an RShiny application has been created using RStudio. The R-Shiny that has been made has many  advantages,  including  complete  results  which  include  data  display,  data transformation, SVD matrix, to graphs along with plot graph interpretation. The results of the principal component biplot analysis using R-Shiny with α =1 have the advantage of a good principal component biplot, which is 95.63%. This shows that the biplot interpretation of the main components produced can be explained well the relationship between the district/city and the contraceptive methods/devices used. 


2022 ◽  
pp. 198-204
Author(s):  
E. A. Mateykovich ◽  
I. I. Kukarskaya ◽  
T. V. Legalova

Introduction. Loss of pregnancy remains an extremely acute public health problem today. Live birth accounts for only 30% of gestational outcomes, all other pregnancies that occur end in reproductive losses: 30% – implantation, 30% – postimplantation, 10% – spontaneous miscarriages. In conditions of declining birth rates, reducing reproductive losses is the most important element of the state’s demographic policy.Аim. Тo assess the reproductive health of women of fertile age in the Tyumen region, registered in antenatal clinics and other medical institutions in connection with pregnancy, as well as the risks associated with an increase in the frequency of diseases endemic for the West Siberian region.Materials and methods. The study used data from federal statistical observation. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using the statistical program Statistica (version 13.0). Quantitative features are described by absolute and relative (percent) indicators. The difference is considered significant at p < 0.05. Results. Despite the increase in the number of women of reproductive age, fertility rates are declining both in the Tyumen region and in the Ural Federal District, as well as in Russia as a whole. The 5-year dynamics of registered pregnancies in the Tyumen region correlates with the dynamics of the birth rate. The incidence of HIV and hepatitis C among pregnant women for five years and for each of the given nosologies exceeds 1% of the number of patients admitted under the supervision of health care facilities. At the same time, since 2018, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy associated with HIV has significantly increased (p >< 000.1). These data also indicate an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in HIV-infected pregnant women (p >< 000.1). From 2016 to 2019, there has been a steady increase in the incidence of ectopic pregnancies and spontaneous abortion in primary pregnant women. The situation has improved somewhat in 2020. Noteworthy is the high share of medical abortion in birth control. Сonclusions. Despite the increase in the number of women of reproductive age, fertility rates are declining both in the Tyumen region and in  the  Ural Federal District, as well as in  Russia  as a  whole. The  5-year dynamics of  registered pregnancies in the Tyumen region correlates with the dynamics of the birth rate. ><  0.05.Results. Despite the increase in the number of women of reproductive age, fertility rates are declining both in the Tyumen region and in the Ural Federal District, as well as in Russia as a whole. The 5-year dynamics of registered pregnancies in the Tyumen region correlates with the dynamics of the birth rate. The incidence of HIV and hepatitis C among pregnant women for five years and for each of the given nosologies exceeds 1% of the number of patients admitted under the supervision of health care facilities. At the same time, since 2018, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy associated with HIV has significantly increased (p < 000.1). These data also indicate an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in HIV-infected pregnant women (p >< 000.1). From 2016 to 2019, there has been a steady increase in the incidence of ectopic pregnancies and spontaneous abortion in primary pregnant women. The situation has improved somewhat in 2020. Noteworthy is the high share of medical abortion in birth control. Сonclusions. Despite the increase in the number of women of reproductive age, fertility rates are declining both in the Tyumen region and in  the  Ural Federal District, as well as in  Russia  as a  whole. The  5-year dynamics of  registered pregnancies in the Tyumen region correlates with the dynamics of the birth rate. ><  000.1). These data also indicate an increased risk of spontaneous abortion in HIV-infected pregnant women (p < 000.1). From 2016 to 2019, there has been a steady increase in the incidence of ectopic pregnancies and spontaneous abortion in primary pregnant women. The situation has improved somewhat in 2020. Noteworthy is the high share of medical abortion in birth control. Сonclusions. Despite the increase in the number of women of reproductive age, fertility rates are declining both in the Tyumen region and in  the  Ural Federal District, as well as in  Russia  as a  whole. The  5-year dynamics of  registered pregnancies in the Tyumen region correlates with the dynamics of the birth rate. >< 000.1). From 2016 to 2019, there has been a steady increase in the incidence of ectopic pregnancies and spontaneous abortion in primary pregnant women. The situation has improved somewhat in 2020. Noteworthy is the high share of medical abortion in birth control.Сonclusions. Despite the increase in the number of women of reproductive age, fertility rates are declining both in the Tyumen region and in  the  Ural Federal District, as well as in  Russia  as a  whole. The  5-year dynamics of  registered pregnancies in the Tyumen region correlates with the dynamics of the birth rate.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jennifer K. Y. Ko ◽  
Jinghua Shi ◽  
Raymond H. W. Li ◽  
William S. B. Yeung ◽  
Ernest H. Y. Ng

Objective: Vitamin D receptors are present in the female reproductive tract. Studies on the association between serum vitamin D level and pregnancy rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF) showed inconsistent results and focused on a single fresh or frozen embryo transfer cycle. The objective of our study was to evaluate if serum vitamin D level before ovarian stimulation was associated with the cumulative live birth rate (CLBR) of the first IVF cycle. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: Women who underwent the first IVF cycle from 2012 to 2016 at a university-affiliated reproductive medicine center were included. Archived serum samples taken before ovarian stimulation were analyzed for 25(OH)D levels using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: 1,113 had pregnancy outcome from the completed IVF cycle. The median age (25th-75th percentile) of the women was 36 (34-38) years and serum 25(OH)D level was 53.4 (41.9-66.6)nmol/L. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (less than 50nmol/L) was 42.2%. The CLBR in the vitamin D deficient group was significantly lower compared to the non-deficient group (43.9%,208/474 vs 50.9%,325/639, p=0.021, unadjusted), and after controlling for women’s age, body mass index, antral follicle count, type and duration of infertility. There were no differences in the clinical/ongoing pregnancy rate, live birth rate and miscarriage rate in the fresh cycle between the vitamin D deficient and non-deficient groups. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent in infertile women in subtropical Hong Kong. The CLBR of the first IVF cycle in the vitamin D deficient group was significantly lower compared to the non-deficient group.


SPERMOVA ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 109-114
Author(s):  
Nubia Catacora ◽  
◽  
Wilber García ◽  
Uri Perez ◽  
Eloy Condori ◽  
...  

The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of the intravaginal device (CIDR) and estradiol cypionate in synchronization protocols, on oestrus presentation, pregnancy and birth rate in Creole sheep under high altitude conditions. The study was carried out in a non-reproductive season, in the peruvian highlands, using 57 ewes. Four experimental groups were formed: group T1 (n=14) and T3 (n=14), CIDR progesterone device for 7 days and 12 days, respectively; group T2 (n=15) and T4 (n=14), CIDR progesterone device for 7 days and 12 days plus 1 mg of estradiol cypionate, 24 hours after removal of the device in both groups, respectively. Estrous presentation was observed from CIDR removal to 48 hours using vasectomized rams and IATF was performed with fresh semen 48 hours after device removal. The pregnancy rate was determined by ultrasonography at 46 and 90 days after FTAI and the birth rate was recorded. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. There was no difference (P>0.05) between groups, for estrous presentation, but there was difference (P<0.05) for pregnancy rate at 46 days between groups with: T1 (42.9%), T3 (38.5%), T4 (21.4%), with respect to T2 (0%) (The difference in results are shown in Table 2). There was a difference (P<0.05) for the pregnancy rate at 90 days: T1 (35.7%) and T3 (30.8%), with respect to T4 (7.1%) and T2 (0 %). The birth rate showed differences (P<0.05) for T1 (28.6%) and T3 (28.6%), with respect to T2 (0%) and T4 (0%). In conclusion, a high pregnancy rate was obtained with CIDR for 7 and 12 days, compared to the use of CIDR plus estradiol cypionate. However, no births were obtained with progesterone plus estradiol cypionate treatment.


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 573-582
Author(s):  
Elena P. Shikhova ◽  
◽  
Evgeniy A. Tveritin ◽  

BACKGROUND: Statistics shows a decrease in the birth rate in Russia. This is alarming fact that obliges to take some measures, including preventive ones. Since the reproductive health of students will determine demographic indicators for many years to come, it is very important to choose methods of prevention in one direction or another, taking into account modern technical trends and hobbies of young people. AIM: To explore the knowledge of students of different specialties in matters of reproductive health, reproductive culture. To suggest the way of preventive measures based on the data obtained. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved students from the Ural, Moscow and St. Petersburg universities. 537 questionnaires were processed. The questionnaire indicated the social status of the participants (gender, age, university profile). According to the latter criterion, the sample was divided into four groups: natural sciences, medical sciences, technical sciences, and humanities. An anonymous survey was conducted in the “Google form”. The respondents answered questions about the most pressing problems of reproductive health and reproductive culture. RESULTS: 64% of the respondents assess their reproductive health as good; the most popular source of information on contraception for university youth is the Internet. According to the analysis of the data obtained, in the event of an unwanted pregnancy, only 24% of the women surveyed would have the pregnancy kept, which may indicate a low reproductive culture of students. CONCLUSION: To take attention to reproductive health and prevention issues among students in accessible terms, blogging on social networks by specialists in the field of obstetrics and gynecology, urology and andrology, senior medical students or clinical residents can be proposed.


2021 ◽  
Vol 65 (6) ◽  
pp. 507-513
Author(s):  
Ravil U. Khabriev ◽  
Elmira N. Mingazova ◽  
Vasil B. Ziatdinov ◽  
Ulyana M. Lebedeva ◽  
Tatyana N. Shigabutdinova ◽  
...  

Introduction. At present, negative trends in medical and demographic indicators continue to persist in the regions of the Russian Federation, which is seen as a consequence of a decrease in the number of young people due to the demographic “hole” of the late 20th century and an increase in the incidence of the population, especially adolescence. Therefore, to develop programs for the formation and protection of the population’s reproductive health, it is of no small importance to identify the patterns of morbidity rates in the population to determine the reproductive potential of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. Purpose. Study the trend of population morbidity, assessment of the relationship and medium-term predicted values of the birth rate and incidence of the population of certain constituent entities of the Russian Federation to assess their reproductive potential. Material and methods: statistical materials of the Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat) in the sections “Demography” and “Healthcare”. The analysis of the dynamics of birth rate indicators and morbidity of the population was carried out. Predictive models for fertility and morbidity of the population were built based on one-factor linear regression, where the birth rate was taken as the dependent variable, and the primary morbidity was taken as the independent variable. Results. The article presents a dynamic analysis of the birth rate, the morbidity rate of the adult, child and adolescent population in four studied territories: the Republic of Tatarstan, Sakha (Yakutia), Dagestan and the Kostroma region. It was revealed that in all regions, there is a decrease in fertility rates, starting from 2014-2015. Conclusion. Based on regression models, a forecast of the birth rate was compiled, which shows that if the existing trends continue, by 2024 relative to 2018, there will be a decrease in the birth rate in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) by 1.2 per 1,000 population, in the Republic of Dagestan - by 0.6 per 1,000 people, in the Kostroma region - by 0.5 per 1,000 people. However, in the Republic of Tatarstan, the indicator is forecasted to be higher than in 2018 - by 0.6 per 1,000 people.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhanhui Ou ◽  
Yu Deng ◽  
Yunhao Liang ◽  
Zhiheng Chen ◽  
Ling Sun

Abstract Background: To evaluate the ability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to conduct preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) for thalassemia using affected embryos. Methods: This study included data from 36 couples who underwent PGT for thalassemia without proband and relative pedigrees. NGS results were compared with prenatal diagnosis results.Results: Thirty-six couples (29 α-thalassemia and 7 β-thalassemia) underwent 41 PGT cycles (31 α-thalassemia and 10 β-thalassemia). All biopsied blastocysts received conclusive results from NGS analysis (100%, 217/217). One hundred and sixty (73.7%, 160/217) were determined to be unaffected by thalassemia. PGT-A (PGT for aneuploidy) results showed that 112 (70.0%, 112/160) were euploid. Thirty-four couples were transferred with a single blastocyst (53 frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles). Thirty-two cycles resulted in clinical pregnancies, and the clinical pregnancy rate was 60.1% (32/53) per FET cycle. Twenty-two cycles (22 couples) resulted in 23 live births and the live birth rate was 43.4% (23/53, 3 cycles were ongoing pregnancy). All 25 cycles’ prenatal diagnosis results and/or thalassemia gene analysis after the delivery were concordant with the NGS-PGT results. Seven cycles were miscarried before 12 weeks’ gestation, and the abortion villus in four cycles showed a normal karyotype and thalassemia results consistent with the NGS-PGT results. Aborted fetus samples from 3 cycles were not available because the pregnancy was less than 5 weeks.Conclusion: NGS can be used to conduct PGT for thalassemia using affected embryos as a reference.Trial registration: Retrospectively registered.


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