Dual Process Model
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Cognition ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 215 ◽  
pp. 104827
Author(s):  
Jihyun Cha ◽  
Ian G. Dobbins

Author(s):  
Ning Zhang ◽  
Qinjian Yuan ◽  
Xin Xiang ◽  
Kuanchin Chen ◽  
◽  
...  

Introduction. Considering the overwhelming amount of scientific information available on academic social networking sites, the purpose of this paper is to explore how users perceive and judge the information quality. Method. Drawing upon the dual-process model, we theorised that the results of perception depend on the influence of both content cues and context-related cues. Analysis. We conducted two controlled experiments to verify our hypotheses. Results. Our findings indicated that, (1) higher levels of information quality can be perceived with high content value than with low content value, and there was an interaction effect between content value and question type (Experiment 1); (2) three kinds of context-related cues (authority cues, peer cues, and recommendation cues) demonstrated the significant main effect on perceived information quality, and there was an interaction effect among these three cues (Experiment 2). Conclusions. This study contributes by addressing both central and peripheral cues based on a dual-process model, different from previous research which has mainly been confined to examining the external cues' effects. Our findings not only can deepen the comprehension about how users perceive and judge the information quality in academic social networking sites, but also can inform platform developers about the design of the interface and the information system.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rengin B. Firat

A longstanding body of literature reveals that experiences of discrimination and exclusion lead to health disadvantages by increasing physiological stress responses both in the body and the brain. However, a sociological view that takes into account structurally and culturally shaped biological processes is missing from the literature. Building on recent literature from the sociology of morality and values and the dual process model of culture, this paper proposes and provides preliminary evidence for an applied theory of culturally situated moral cognition as a coping mechanism with ethno-racial stress. I focus on values as they help cope with ethnicity and race related stress such as discrimination. Using functional neuroimaging data, I offer evidence that values operate through both explicit (controlled and conscious) processes recruiting brain regions like the dorsal prefrontal cortex, and implicit (automatic and non-conscious) processes recruiting regions like the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, to help cope with exclusion and discrimination.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Suzanne Thomas ◽  
Louise Stephens ◽  
Tracey A Mills ◽  
Christine Hughes ◽  
A. Michael Arundale ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Pregnancy after the death of a baby is associated with a series of emotional and psychological challenges for pregnant women and their families. Specialist antenatal services have been proposed to address the increased biomedical and psychological risks in pregnancies after perinatal death. This study aimed to explore the pregnancy and postnatal experiences of women in a pregnancy after a perinatal death who were attending a specialist antenatal service and to evaluate the economic impact of the service.Methods To explore women’s views and experiences of care during their pregnancy this study used face-to-face semi-structured interviews following a topic guide comprising of four sections (history leading to care pathway, their experience of coping with new pregnancy after loss, support and advice for others). Following inductive thematic analysis, a deductive approach was taken to map themes to Stroebe and Schutt’s Dual Process Model of Grief.A Social Return on Investment (SROI) analysis informed by contributions from a subgroup of women and staff participants. Information was obtained from focus groups discussions, questionnaires and interviews. The SROI was reported as the ratio of the value generated by the clinic and the costs of providing the service.Results Thematic analysis of interviews (n=20) described how perinatal death was a quiet, unspoken subject and that navigating subsequent pregnancies relied on expecting the worst and hoping for the best. Mapping these themes onto the Dual Process Model of Grief found being pregnant complicated the grieving process, as increased awareness of the risk of stillbirth drew parents’ focus back to loss. Attendance at a specialist service was valued; SROI analysis found that for £1 invested, £6.10 of value was generated, mostly relating to the birth of a live baby, reduced negative psychological symptoms and fewer focussed contacts with health professionals.Conclusions Specialist antenatal care in pregnancies after perinatal death was viewed favourably by parents. Women’s experiences can be used to synthesise and develop models of care that aim to meet their needs but comparative studies are required to determine whether these models are superior to routine high-risk care and to identify which components are most valued.


2021 ◽  
pp. 105971232110173
Author(s):  
Zachariah A Neemeh

Dual-process theories divide cognition into two kinds of processes: Type 1 processes that are autonomous and do not use working memory, and Type 2 processes that are decoupled from the immediate situation and use working memory. Often, Type 1 processes are also fast, high capacity, parallel, nonconscious, biased, contextualized, and associative, while Type 2 processes are typically slow, low capacity, serial, conscious, normative, abstract, and rule-based. This article argues for an embodied dual-process theory based on the phenomenology of Martin Heidegger. According to Heidegger, the basis of human agents’ encounters with the world is in a prereflective, pragmatically engaged disposition marked by readiness-to-hand ( Zuhandenheit), sometimes equated with “smooth coping.” Examples of smooth coping include walking, throwing a ball, and other embodied actions that do not require reflective thought. I argue that smooth coping primarily consists of Type 1 processes. The Heideggerian dual-process model yields distinctly different hypotheses from Hubert Dreyfus’ model of smooth coping, and I will critically engage with Dreyfus’ work.


2021 ◽  
pp. 003329412110167
Author(s):  
Steven A. Berg ◽  
Justin H. Moss

The current investigation examined the nature of the cognitive processes that underlie decision-making behavior. The focus of this project centered on the effects of utilizing heuristics that pertain to the availability of information stored in memory. Anchoring effects demonstrate that people will use any available information sampled from memory as a reference for making judgments of frequency. The specific aim of the experiment was to examine whether people exhibit patterns of behavior consistent with anchoring effects, revealed by corrupted subjective judgments, despite explicit notice of instruction to disregard the experimenter-supplied information (the anchor). Subjects failed to demonstrate an ability to disregard a relatively high anchor even when the instruction to do so was explicit. However, in contrast, subjects demonstrated an ability to disregard a relatively low anchor. More broadly, subjects instructed to disregard demonstrated a reduced effect of anchoring. Implications are considered within the context of the availability heuristic and the directly related effects of anchoring. The results may be interpreted within the framework of a dual-process model, two-system view that distinguishes intuition from reasoning. The present findings fit with well-supported theoretical explanations of anchoring effects, such as selective accessibility and numerical priming.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Stephen A Rains ◽  
Andrew C High

Abstract Although prior research documents the benefits of supportive messages containing higher levels of verbal person centeredness (VPC), the effects of this message property over time within a discussion are not well understood. This project evaluated predictions about the effects of high and low VPC messages over time drawn from the theory of conversationally induced reappraisals and the dual-process model of supportive communication outcomes. Participants (N = 281) completed an interaction with a computerized support provider in which the level of VPC was manipulated. Before and after the interaction and after receiving each of four supportive messages, participants rated their emotional distress, reappraisal, and validation. Participants in the high and low VPC conditions exhibited a significant reduction in emotional distress from before to after their interaction. Receiving subsequent messages with high levels of VPC produced a non-linear trend in distress reduction, whereas receiving subsequent low VPC messages fostered little change.


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