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Author(s):  
Ceylan Zhao ◽  
Timothy Burgess

In this research, we looked at the cognitive and behavioral effects of playing Penguin Go, a video game that was created to help middle school kids improve their computational thinking (CT) abilities. Apart from the general efficacy of the game, we looked at the effects of a single game feature—constraints on the amount of blocks that may be used in a solution. Students' CT abilities increased dramatically after playing Penguin Go for fewer than two hours, according to the findings, but the extra limits had no meaningful effect on learning. Furthermore, although the game as a whole had no effect on students' views toward computer science, the limitations condition of the game had a detrimental effect on students' attitudes toward computer science. The outcomes of this study, as well as suggested possibilities for future research in the area of employing these sorts of games to build computational thinking abilities, are reviewed.


2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yang Liu ◽  
Senlin Chen

Purpose: Positive youth development (PYD) can be achieved through effective and purposeful instructions in physical education (PE) and other relevant experiences both in and beyond schools. Students' PYD is associated with their physical literacy (PL) development, which has become a primary emphasis of PE, especially in the United States, in recent years. This study aimed to (a) characterize middle school students' physical literacy (PL) and (b) capture their PL developing trajectories in light of receiving a self-determination theory (SDT)-based pedagogical workshop, with the long-term vision on PYD.Methods: Participants (N = 226) completed the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL-2) in physical education (PE). A subsample (n = 49) received four workshop sessions over 8 weeks; and completed the CAPL-2 and participated in focus group interviews before and after the workshop.Results: Both boys and girls' CAPL-2 scores were in the “progressing” stage. Significant differences in PL and PL domains were observed by gender, grade, socioeconomic status (SES), body mass index (BMI), and race/ethnicity. The low PL group showed improvements in PL and PL domains. Interview data delineated positive PL developing trajectories for physical activity (PA) type, frequency, and intensity; perceived motives; and participation barriers.Conclusion: PL is a dynamic state that can be improved through purposeful PE. Future work should examine the effect (and implementation) of opportunities in (e.g., PE) and beyond schools (e.g., youth sports programs) to ultimately advance PYD.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhang Rong ◽  
Zhang Wen ◽  
Liao Maoxu ◽  
Liu Ya ◽  
Fan Song ◽  
...  

Abstract Background In recent years, the number of adolescents engaging in premarital sex has increased, and an increasing number of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) cases have been reported in China. Many studies have indicated that CSA has a well-established association with risky sexual activities. However, only a limited number of studies have explored possible reasons for this association among middle school students, a population that may engage in premarital sex, which is critical for the development of interventions to prevent risky sexual behavior. Based on random samples of middle school students from a Chinese city, this article investigated the relationship between CSA and students’ premarital sexual permissiveness (PSP). Methods In a cross-sectional study conducted between 2016 and 2017 in Luzhou, China, 2292 middle school and high school students aged 12–18 years were recruited by multistage random sampling. All students were administered anonymous questionnaires. Multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between CSA and PSP. Results The prevalence of CSA was 15.4% (354/2292; 95% CI: 14–16.9%). A higher percentage of male respondents (18.2%) than female respondents (12.9%) had experienced CSA. A positive association between CSA and PSP was found among students. Respondents who had suffered CSA exhibited greater PSP, and this relationship was observed in the male sample, female sample and the total student sample in Luzhou (β = − 3.76, P < 0.05; β = − 2.79, P < 0.05; and β = − 2.84, P < 0.05, respectively). Respondents who had suffered CSA were also more likely to express a double standard about premarital sex (odds ratio [OR] =1.41, P < 0.05), especially among male students (odds ratio [OR] =1.63, P < 0.05). Conclusions Sex differences in CSA and the relationship between CSA and PSP were significant among this large sample of middle school students in Luzhou (China). The findings suggest that experiencing CSA may be closely related to youth attitudes toward premarital sex, especially among males. Therefore, it is important to emphasize the prevention of CSA and provide adolescent reproductive health programs to reduce the impact of CSA on sexual cognition and attitude, prevent premarital sex and promote positive attitudes toward sexual equality for middle school students.


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