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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wilmar Schaufeli

This paper introduces the notion of engaging leadership and reviews the empirical work done so far. Engaging leadership is defined as leadership behavior that facilitates, strengthens, connects and inspires employees in order to increase their work engagement. It can be measured with a reliable and valid self-report scale. As predicted by Self-Determination Theory, on which the concept of engaging leadership is based, basic need satisfaction mediates the relationship between engaging leadership and work engagement. This is true both for individual employees as well as the team level. In addition, job characteristics (job demands and job resources) seem to play a similar mediating role, just as personal resources. Furthermore, research shows that engaging leadership has a beneficial effect on individual and team performance which illustrates its relevance for organizations. Future research should focus, amongst others, on the opposite of engaging leadership (i.e., disengaging leadership) and interventions to foster engaging leadership. Moreover, alternative affective, cognitive and behavioral pathways should be explored that might play a role in addition to the motivational (through need fulfillment) and material (through job characteristics) pathways that have been investigated so far.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Nicola Cangialosi ◽  
Adalgisa Battistelli ◽  
Carlo Odoardi

PurposeHow to design jobs to support innovation is an issue that has received plenty of consideration over the past years. Building on the job characteristics model, the present study is set up to identify configurations of perceived job characteristics for innovation.Design/methodology/approachBy adopting a fuzzy-set configurational approach (fsQCA), the research question is addressed through a two-wave self-report survey of 199 employees of an Italian manufacturing company.FindingsResults reveal four compatible configurations of job characteristics leading to high levels of innovative work behavior and two for low levels.Practical implicationsThe results offer guidance for managers and organizations that aim to strengthen employee-driven innovation by offering different recipes of job design to maximize the chance of boosting innovative behaviors among their workers.Originality/valueThis research is one of the first to empirically test the relation of job characteristics for innovative behavior using a configurational approach. By doing so it contributes to the literature by advancing the notion that innovative endeavors are determined by the holistic effects of different interdependent configurations of job characteristics.

2021 ◽  
Teresa Ober ◽  
Cheng Liu ◽  
Matt Carter ◽  
Alison Cheng

We develop and present validity evidence for a new 12-item self-report measure of test anxiety, the Trait Test Anxiety Inventory - Short (TTAI-S), following Kane’s validation framework. Data were collected from three independent samples of college students in the U.S. (N=552; Mage=22.25 years). Scoring validity was evidenced by good internal consistency and confirmed structure as a single factor. Generalization validity was evidenced by scalar measurement invariance based on the sample (Internet v. community) and subgroups (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, and parental educational attainment). Extrapolation validity was evidenced by significant associations between the TTAI-S score and two theoretically relevant constructs (state test anxiety, self-efficacy). These findings support the psychometric integrity of the TTAI-S, which may be used to investigate trait test anxiety in a variety of contexts.

2021 ◽  
Isabel Nyangu ◽  
Zerish Zethu Nkosi

Background: In Lesotho, ART services are provided in primary health care (PHC) facilities which are mostly run by nurses. Purpose: The study aimed to describe perceptions of nurses regarding the antiretroviral therapy services at PHC facilities across six selected districts in Lesotho. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted in which convenience sampling was used to select 214 nurses working at PHC facilities across six districts. They completed a structured self-report questionnaire that collected information on their perceptions using a Likert scale with six options (strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree, and no answer). The response rate was 92% (n=197) and data were analyzed using SPSS (23). Results: Perceptions of nurses were positive and the same on whether ARVS and other medications were available; they were qualified and competent to provide ART services; they had adequate resources and equipment to provide ART services; they were satisfied with their jobs and the services they provided; and there was monitoring and evaluating system for the ART services. Their perceptions significantly differed and were mostly negative on whether they were adequately staffed to provide ART services; their organizational structures allowed for the provision of adequate and efficient services; ART services were accessible; and there was adequate and accurate documentation of the ART services they provided. Conclusions: As nurses are the main health care providers in Lesotho, their perceptions are important in improving service delivery. It is important to standardize ART services across the districts to ensure equitable accessibility in line with service demand.

Elizabeth S. Wenzel ◽  
Tory Eisenlohr-Moul ◽  
Unnathi Nagelli ◽  
Beatriz Peñalver Bernabé ◽  
Pauline M. Maki

2021 ◽  
Jeremy R Manning ◽  
Gina M Notaro ◽  
Esme Chen ◽  
Paxton C Fitzpatrick

Physical exercise can benefit both physical and mental well-being. Different forms of exercise (i.e., aerobic versus anaerobic; running versus walking, swimming, or yoga; high-intensity interval training versus endurance workouts; etc.) impact physical fitness in different ways. For example, running may substantially impact leg and heart strength but only moderately impact arm strength. We hypothesized that the mental benefits of exercise might be similarly differentiated. We focused specifically on how different forms of exercise might related to different aspects of memory and mental health. To test our hypothesis, we collected (in aggregate) roughly a century's worth of fitness data. We then asked participants to fill out surveys asking them to self-report on different aspects of their mental health. We also asked participants to engage in a battery of memory tasks that tested their short and long term episodic, semantic, and spatial memory performance. We found that participants with similar exercise habits and fitness profiles tended to also exhibit similar mental health and task performance profiles. These effects were task-specific in that different exercise patterns or fitness characteristics varied with different aspects of memory, on different tasks.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Koninika Mukherjee ◽  
Dilwar Hussain

Purpose Due to ongoing significant life changes during the transition into higher education, social anxiety can be problematic, especially for college students. It has adverse effects on various aspects of one’s life, including one’s feelings and emotions. The study investigated the interplay between social anxiety and emotions and its impact on affect. The aim of this study is to examine the role of difficulties in emotion regulation in the relationship between social anxiety and change in affect. Design/methodology/approach This is a longitudinal study. Data was collected with self-report instruments at two time points with a gap of four months. Participants were Indian undergraduate students from a technical institute. Findings The result revealed that high social anxiety in tandem with difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior significantly impacts changes in positive affect. However, this effect was significant only in the presence of depression. Research limitations/implications This study highlights the harmful impact of comorbid issues such as depression in socially anxious individuals. The present study might have implications for educators and clinicians working with college students. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the only study to test the proposed research model in a sample of Indian college students. The use of a moderated moderation analysis with the three regulation strategies and depression also adds to the uniqueness of this study.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Vittoria Zaccari ◽  
Andrea Gragnani ◽  
Valerio Pellegrini ◽  
Tecla Caiazzo ◽  
Maria Chiara D'Arienzo ◽  

Background and Objectives: While the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for general mental health and the increase in anxiety and depression are clear, less is known about the potential effect of the pandemic on OCD. The purpose of this study is to collect new data to monitor the symptomatic status of patients with OCD during the period of emergency due to COVID-19 and to make a comparison between two psychodiagnostic evaluations.Methods: Eleven OCD patients and their psychotherapists were recruited. All patients had a specific psychodiagnostic assessment for OCD (SCL-90; OCI-R; Y-BOCS self-report) performed between December 2019 and January 2020 (t0), and undertook cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and exposure and prevention of response protocol (ERP) before the lockdown. The psychodiagnostic assessment carried out at t0 was re-administered (t1) to all patients, together with a set of qualitative questions collected through an online survey. The respective therapists were asked to document the status of the therapy and the monitoring of symptoms through use of a semi-structured interview (Y-BOCS) and a qualitative interview. Non-parametric analyses were conducted.Results: Patients reported a significant decrease in OCD symptoms. Data analysis showed a decrease in the scores across t0 and at t1 on the Y-BOCS (SR) total self-report, and on OCD symptoms' severity assessed by means of the OCI-r and SCL-90 r OC subscale, for 11 participants. Relating to the measures detected by psychotherapists, marginally significant improvements and lower scores were found in the Y-BOCS (I). An improvement in symptoms was noticed by 90.9% of the clinical sample; this was confirmed by 45.4% of the therapists, who claimed moderate progress in their patients.Conclusions: The data collected through standardized measurements at two different times, albeit relative to a small sample, assume relevance from a clinical point of view. In the literature, some studies document the worsening of OCD. However, in many studies, the type of treatment, the detection time, and the intervention period are not well-specified. These results confirm the effectiveness of CBT/ERP as an elective treatment for OCD through a specific intervention procedure.

2021 ◽  
pp. 026540752110472
Ronald F Chau ◽  
Widyasita N Sawyer ◽  
Jeff Greenberg ◽  
Matthias R Mehl ◽  
David A Sbarra

Self-compassion is a positive psychological construct associated with heightened well-being, but the construct is largely measured via self-report. In a study of divorcing adults ( N = 120), we sought to replicate and extend prior research on the association between self-rated and observed self-compassion, the linguistic cues associated with self-rated and observed self-compassion, and the predictive utility of observed self-compassion. Untrained observers rated participants’ stream-of-consciousness recordings about their marriage and separation experience. We found adequate consensus among raters of observed self-compassion and a significant, positive association between self-rated and observed self-compassion. Greater self- and observer-rated self-compassion were associated with less distress at baseline; however, only observed self-compassion was associated with less distress at the final study assessment. Discussion centers on the cues observers use to perceive self-compassion in others and the extent to which behavioral manifestations of affect may shape such ratings.

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