Construal Level
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2021 ◽  
pp. 194855062110440
Ramzi Fatfouta ◽  
Yaacov Trope

Mask wearing plays a vital role in the fight against the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Despite its ubiquity in everyday social life, it is still unknown how masked faces are mentally represented. Drawing on construal-level theory, we test the hypothesis that masked faces and unmasked faces are implicitly associated with psychological distance and proximity in memory, respectively. Four preregistered, high-powered experiments ( N = 354 adults) using the Implicit Association Test lend convergent support to this hypothesis across all four dimensions of psychological distance: social distance, spatial distance, temporal distance, and hypothetical distance. A mini meta-analysis validates the reliability of the findings (Hedge’s g = 0.46). The present work contributes to the growing literature on construal-level effects on implicit social cognition and enriches the current discussion on mask wearing in the pandemic and beyond.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (18) ◽  
pp. 5774
Byoung Joon Kim ◽  
Seoyong Kim

This study investigated how, through knowledge calibration and a causal path model, psychological distance can explain the level of satisfaction with nuclear energy policy. The investigation used multiple regression analysis and path analysis to explore relationships among variables. Data from 1056 adults revealed that more knowledge-calibrated individuals have more positive attitudes toward nuclear energy policy. In addition, the psychological distance influences policy satisfaction by mediation of perceived risk of nuclear energy. This study aimed to increase the understanding of the dynamic of satisfaction with and acceptance of nuclear energy policy among stakeholders. Thus, based on the construal level theory, the study addressed the importance of knowledge and psychological distance in explaining variation in satisfaction and acceptance about nuclear policy.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Bing Shi

Purpose This study aims to focus on whether and furthermore how aesthetics-based mystery affects consumers’ responses toward relevant products. Design/methodology/approach Three experimental studies are reported. In Studies 1–2, smartphone ad flyers varying in mystery and non-mystery styles were adopted. A total of 187 undergraduate participants were recruited in Study 1 and 245 undergraduate participants in Study 2. In Study 3, a total of 193 participants who work in a range of businesses were recruited and wristwatch ad flyers were adopted. Findings Findings demonstrate that consumers are more willing to pay for products promoted via mystery appeal (versus non-mystery). Such positive impacts occur through consumers’ high-end perceptions of the products. Concrete, rather than abstract, verbal description of quality product features facilitate the impact of mystery appeal on consumer purchase decisions. Research limitations/implications The findings advance an extant understanding of mystery appeal in advertising. It is among the first few to demonstrate that high-end product perceptions carry over the positive influence of mystery on consumers. This research is enlightening by suggesting an incongruity effect between pictorial stimuli and verbal information in the advertisement. This study’s scope is limited to visual mystery-evoking stimuli and Chinese participants. Practical implications When marketers/advertisers promoting products/brands with high prices, aesthetics-based mystery appeal should be considered as an effective option. This appeal is implicated as effective across gender. Moreover, visual mystery-evoking stimuli, combined with a concrete (not abstract) verbal description of product features should be optimal in promoting products. Originality/value The findings contribute to the limited empirical research on the influence processes of aesthetics-based mystery appeal. Different from the intuition, it is suggested that incongruity between visual and verbal stimuli in mystery ads that enhances the positive effect of mystery appeal.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Guanghua Sheng ◽  
Qing Xia ◽  
Beibei Yue ◽  
Yuqi Li

Based on the construal level theory (CLT), this study discusses the effects of congruence between image proximity and product type on advertising attitude and product attitude from the perspective of spatial distance and investigates the mediating role of mental imagery. Data are collected using two laboratory experiments and one online experiment. A two-way ANOVA is used to test the interaction between image proximity and product type, and a bootstrap analysis is used to test the mediating role of mental imagery. The result shows that: (1) For search products, compared with full-length shots, the close-up shots of environmental information can enable consumers to generate more positive advertising attitude and product attitude. For experience products, the full-length shots of environmental information can enable consumers to generate more positive advertising attitude and product attitude than the close-up shots. (2) The congruence effect of image proximity and product type has an impact on advertising attitude and product attitude through mental imagery. This research uses different kinds of image proximity to express environmental information about green products and tries to interpret the effectiveness of green advertisements from a new perspective.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Susana C. Santos ◽  
Shahrokh Nikou ◽  
Malin Brännback ◽  
Eric W. Liguori

PurposeBuilding on construal level theory (CLT), this study explores mental representations of entrepreneurial intentions (EIs) with different foci (i.e. social and commercial) among university students from Generations Y and Z.Design/methodology/approachUsing a sample of university students from the United States contacted through the Entrepreneurship Education Project, this study employs a configurational perspective—fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA)—to identify the pathways leading to EIs and social entrepreneurial intentions (SEIs).FindingsResults show that the configurations of conditions leading to the outcomes (EI and SEI) are not disparate but share far more similarities even when considering socially oriented antecedents, supporting the claim that students perceive both EIs with different foci as high-level construals. The results also demonstrate no differences within gender, but there are asymmetries between gender in the configurations leading to EI and SEI.Research limitations/implicationsThis study contributes to EI literature by providing new insights into understanding how individuals perceive EIs at an early stage of entrepreneurship and by bringing CLT to the EI literature.Practical implicationsThese results have implications for entrepreneurship education and practice, as it recognizes that students' EIs are psychologically distant, lacking a level of detail and specificity. This would explain why students do not immediately create ventures, but that entrepreneurship has a certain incubation time to create an entrepreneurial mindset.Originality/valueExploring the configurational approaches can help to uncover the complexity and idiosyncrasies underlying EIs.

2021 ◽  
pp. 014616722110381
Natalie A. Wyer ◽  
Timothy J. Hollins ◽  
Sabine Pahl

Social events are rich in information, yet research into how people remember such events has typically been limited to considering one aspect (e.g., faces, behaviors) at a time. Based on an internal meta-analysis of a program work encompassing 15 laboratory, field, and on-line experiments involving 1,230 participants, we found that construal level influences both the ability to recognize people involved in the event ( d = 0.30) and the way the social aspects of the event are described (average d = 0.48). In contrast, memory for background objects/scenes that were present during the event was unaffected by construal level. We discuss these findings in terms of their implications for both event memory (and situations where different aspects of the same event are remembered) and for construal level (and the question of how and when construal is likely to affect memory).

2021 ◽  
pp. 095679762199831
Liat Hadar ◽  
Yaacov Trope ◽  
Boaz M. Ben-David

Age-related changes in decision making have been attributed to deterioration of cognitive skills, such as learning and memory. On the basis of past research showing age-related decreases in the ability to inhibit irrelevant information, we hypothesize that these changes occur, in part, because of older adults’ tendency to give more weight to low-level, subordinate, and goal-irrelevant information than younger adults do. Consistent with this hypothesis, our findings demonstrated that young adults are willing to pay more for a product with superior end attributes than a product with superior means attributes (Study 1, N = 200) and are more satisfied after an experience with superior end than means attributes (Study 2, N = 399). Young adults are also more satisfied with a goal-relevant than with a goal-irrelevant product (Study 3, N = 201; Study 4, N = 200, preregistered). Importantly, these effects were attenuated with age. Implications for research on construal level and aging, as well as implications for policymakers, are discussed.

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