alternative approach
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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-28
Besat Kassaie ◽  
Elizabeth L. Irving ◽  
Frank Wm. Tompa

The standard approach to expert-in-the-loop machine learning is active learning, where, repeatedly, an expert is asked to annotate one or more records and the machine finds a classifier that respects all annotations made until that point. We propose an alternative approach, IQRef , in which the expert iteratively designs a classifier and the machine helps him or her to determine how well it is performing and, importantly, when to stop, by reporting statistics on a fixed, hold-out sample of annotated records. We justify our approach based on prior work giving a theoretical model of how to re-use hold-out data. We compare the two approaches in the context of identifying a cohort of EHRs and examine their strengths and weaknesses through a case study arising from an optometric research problem. We conclude that both approaches are complementary, and we recommend that they both be employed in conjunction to address the problem of cohort identification in health research.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 839
Wangdo Kim ◽  
Emir A. Vela

The first peak of the external knee abduction moment (KAM) is often used as a surrogate measure of the medial compartment loading and has been correlated with pain and progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA). As a result, reducing the KAM is often the target of conservative interventions. OA should be considered as a “Whole Person” disease, including ecological psychosocial aspects. Scientists have developed gait alteration strategies to reduce the KAM. They attempted to force into a new position any particular part without reference to the pattern of the whole. We propose an alternative approach: in the vicinity of a special configuration of the knee, some or all of the components of the knee become overloaded. This study has shown that when six lines $1′,$2′,$3′,$4′,$5′,$6′ are so situated that forces acting along them equilibrate when applied to one degree of freedom, 1° F knee, a certain determinant vanishes. We wish to define the six lines as the knee complex in involution by virtue of some constraint upon the knee.

2022 ◽  
Ze'ev Reches ◽  
Nadav Wetzler

Abstract Faulting of rocks is a dominant earth process that governs small-scale fracturing, formation of tectonic plate boundaries, and earthquakes occurrence1–4. Since the 18th century, the mechanical settings for rock faulting were commonly analyzed with the Coulomb criterion5 that offers empirical, useful tools for scientific and engineering applications1,6–12. Here we revisit the processes of rock faulting by an alternative approach that incorporates elastic energy, strain-state, and three-dimensional deformation; these mechanical fundamentals are missing in Coulomb criterion. We propose that a stressed rock-body fails as two conditions are met: (1) The elastic energy generated by the loading system equals or exceeds a critical energy intensity that is required for the faulting process; (2) The internal strain of the stressed rock-body due to slip and dilation along the developing faults equals the strain-state created by the loading system to maintain physical continuity13,14. Our simulations reveal that meeting these energy and strain conditions requires an orthorhombic, polymodal fault geometry that is similar to natural and experimental fault systems15–20. The application of our formulation to hundreds of rock-mechanics experiments11,21–28 provides a new, comprehensive benchmark for rock-faulting.

2022 ◽  
pp. 096366252110572
Michelle L. Edwards ◽  
Caden Ziegler

This study examines science communication within Ask Me Anything sessions hosted by US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration scientists on Reddit. In addition to considering a unique social media platform, our work makes an important contribution in revealing the limitations of a traditional approach to studying science communication and modeling an alternative. First, using an “assembled” approach, we qualitatively explore themes in National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration scientists’ posts and consider how they reflect the goals of “deficit” and “dialogue” models. Second, using a “disassembling” approach, inspired by Davies and Horst and actor-network theory, we more deeply examine our experiences studying the Ask Me Anything sessions. We then demonstrate how this alternative approach identifies “hidden” human and non-human actants that may have shaped science communication as “mediators.” We use these insights to reject the common assumption that science communication on social media occurs solely and directly between scientists and publics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Manar Bahaa El Din Mohamed ◽  
Fatma I. Abo El-Ela ◽  
Rehab K. Mahmoud ◽  
Ahmed A. Farghali ◽  
Shymaa Gamil ◽  

AbstractThis study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of magnetic nanocomposite of cefotax against MRSA. A total of 190 samples were collected from milk, farm personnel and different environmental components from the dairy farm under the study to isolate S. aureus. Cefotax based magnetic nanoparticles was synthetized by the adsorption method and marked using Fourier-transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), then it was characterized using Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope (SEM and TEM). The obtained results revealed that number of positive samples of S. aureus isolation were 63 (33.1%), mainly from feed manger followed by milk machine swabs (60.0 and 53.3%, respectively) at X2 = 48.83 and P < 0.001. Obtained isolates were identified biochemically and by using molecular assays (PCR), also mec A gene responsible for resistance to cefotax was detected. Testing the sensitivity of 63 isolates of S. aureus showed variable degree of resistance to different tested antibiotics and significant sensitivity to cefotax based magnetic nanoparticles at P < 0.05. It was concluded that dairy environment might act a potential source for transmission of MRSA between human and animal populations. In addition, cefotax based magnetic nanoparticles verified an extreme antimicrobial efficacy against MRSA.

2022 ◽  
Alejandro Castellanos-Gonzalez ◽  
Aygul Sadiqova ◽  
Justine Ortega-Mendez ◽  
A. Clinton White

Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in children. Nitazoxanide, the only FDA-approved treatment for cryptosporidiosis, has limited efficacy in those at highest risk for sequelae. RNA-argonaute (Ago) complexes to Cryptosporidium nucleoside diphosphate kinase (cpNDK) decreased the Cryptosporidium parvum mRNA by 95% in infected cells in vitro. Treatment of mice by oral gavage with ssRNA/Ago complexes encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles led to delivery of the complexes into intestinal epithelial cells. Treatment of C. parvum infected mice with ssRNA/Ago complexes targeting cpNDK led to the resolution of oocyst shedding in 4/5 SCID/beige mice. These results confirm the potential use of antisense therapy as an alternative approach to cryptosporidiosis treatment.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 364
Tatsuya Onishi ◽  
Kisyo Mihara ◽  
Sachiko Matsuda ◽  
Satoshi Sakamoto ◽  
Akihiro Kuwahata ◽  

Screening, monitoring, and diagnosis are critical in oncology treatment. However, there are limitations with the current clinical methods, notably the time, cost, and special facilities required for radioisotope-based methods. An alternative approach, which uses magnetic beads, offers faster analyses with safer materials over a wide range of oncological applications. Magnetic beads have been used to detect extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the serum of pancreatic cancer patients with statistically different EV levels in preoperative, postoperative, and negative control samples. By incorporating fluorescence, magnetic beads have been used to quantitatively measure prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a prostate cancer biomarker, which is sensitive enough even at levels found in healthy patients. Immunostaining has also been incorporated with magnetic beads and compared with conventional immunohistochemical methods to detect lesions; the results suggest that immunostained magnetic beads could be used for pathological diagnosis during surgery. Furthermore, magnetic nanoparticles, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), can detect sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer in a clinical setting, as well as those in gallbladder cancer in animal models, in a surgery-applicable timeframe. Ultimately, recent research into the applications of magnetic beads in oncology suggests that the screening, monitoring, and diagnosis of cancers could be improved and made more accessible through the adoption of this technology.

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