Empirical Studies
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2021 ◽  

This book presents the current state of knowledge in the vibrant and diverse field of vocabulary studies, summarising the latest empirical studies and providing a firm indication of the future of the field. The chapters cover the key themes of theorizing and measuring vocabulary knowledge, formulaic language, and learning and teaching vocabulary.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Patrik Michaelsen

In this thesis I argue that how people perceive and experience nudge interventions is an underappreciated factor that can help assess, and potentially address, both effectiveness and ethical concerns. In the introduction, I outline a framework for how this can be the case. Specifically, I propose that people’s perceptions and experiences are relevant to assessing (1) the ethics of nudging, (2) the net effect of nudging, and that they may (3) be moderators of the success of nudges influencing behavior. I then present three empirical studies (nine sub-studies, total N = 5171) that used online experiments to assess how people perceive and experience being subjected to nudges. In contrast to the majority of similar research, the present studies primarily subjected participants to nudges first-hand. That is, participants did not rate descriptions of nudges, but engaged in choice tasks first hand before assessing the intervention. Results indicated that people subjected to default nudges: experienced themselves as highly, and not less, autonomous and satisfied with their choices (Study I); found the use of the nudge to be fair, though less fair than no nudge (Study II); and favorably perceived a choice architect using the nudge, and not less so than in the absence of a nudge (Study III). Additionally, the studies found that making the nudge increasingly transparent by disclosing its presence and expected effect to participants did not meaningfully change their experiences of choosing, but could either improve or worsen perceptions of the nudge depending on the circumstances of the evaluation. When participants were disclosed of the nudge after they had already made a choice, this was found to negatively affect their perceptions of the choice architect. Providing a nudge disclosure did not, however, influence participants’ propensity to act in line with the nudge. I conclude that the present findings paint a generally positive picture of how default nudges are perceived and experienced, but that more research is necessary to properly inform policy. I suggest that policymakers should routinely use measures of choice experiences as a guide when designing new nudge interventions. Nevertheless, as judged by the empirical evidence available at present, default nudges appear to be a viable form of intervention in relation to concerns about both their effectiveness and ethicality.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
J. Loes Pouwels ◽  
Loes Keijsers ◽  
Candice Odgers

Potential harmful effects of social media use on well-being have received ample attention in the public and scientific debate. Recent research suggests, however, that some individuals benefit from using social media. This article therefore questions: Who are likely to benefit most from social media, the socially rich (e.g., extraverted or socially supported individuals) or the socially poor (e.g., anxious or lonely individuals)? Existing empirical studies were suboptimally designed to address this question. To better understand the complex interplay between individuals’ social media use and psychosocial functioning, we introduce new research questions that are linked with appropriate state-of-the-art research methods.


Praxis Psy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (35) ◽  
pp. 27-47
Author(s):  
Natassia Bueno ◽  
Jairo Borges-Andrade

The individual coaching process is a growing intervention used in work organizations. The investment in this tool is justified by the belief that a worker can develop skills, change behaviors, and achieve goals with the help of a professional coach. This would result in better individual and organizational performance. However, little is known about the scientific basis of its effectiveness. This study sought to search, in the scientific literature, about what is known with respect to the effectiveness of individual coaching processes in the work context. From the analysis of nineteen scientific papers published, using a method of rapid systematic review, the results suggested little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of coaching. There is a need to conduct more empirical studies with high quality and scientific methodological rigor, which may bring more scientific evidence and greater robustness and reliability for research results in this field.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Conor Taff

Wild animals often experience unpredictable challenges that demand rapid and flexible responses. The glucocorticoid mediated stress response is one of the major systems that allows vertebrates to rapidly adjust their physiology and behavior. Given its role in responding to challenges, evolutionary physiologists have focused on the consequences of between-individual and, more recently, within-individual variation in the acute glucocorticoid response. Although sophisticated approaches are available to partition this variation statistically, empirical studies of physiological flexibility are severely limited by the logistical challenges of measuring the same animal multiple times during a single acute response or across multiple instances of acute responses. Empiricists have largely adopted the strategy of standardizing sampling as much as possible to allow for comparison between individuals, but this standardization also makes it very difficult to detect certain types of variation in the functional shape of acute response curves. Data simulation is a powerful approach when empirical data are limited, but has not been adopted to date in studies of physiological flexibility. In this paper, I describe the simcoRt package, which includes functions that can generate realistic acute glucocorticoid response data with user specified characteristics. Simulated animals can be sampled continuously through an acute response and across as many separate responses as desired, while varying key parameters (e.g., the degree of correlation between the speed and scope of a response). Using this simulation, I explore several possible scenarios to highlight areas where simulation might either provide new insight into physiological flexibility directly or aid in designing empirical studies that are better able to test the hypotheses of interest.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 15-27
Author(s):  
Olayo Ochieng ◽  
Lewis Kamau

Purpose: This paper sought to examine whether workplace training in mitigating discrimination, harassment and retaliation has been effective. Methodology: This study adopted exploratory research methodology. Exploratory research design is used to investigate a problem which is not clearly defined. It is conducted to have a better understanding of the existing problem, but will not provide conclusive results. It explored studies conducted on the topic. This means that the study relied on desk-top review of the existing studies and documented case laws.  Further, it relied on the cases laws. A narrative analysis was done and at this point the information was interpreted by comparing the findings with the findings of other empirical studies. This information was interpreted together with the ‘Stories within stories’ and related to the existing literature Findings: The results found that while workplace training increases sensitivity, it is associated with less accuracy in detecting discrimination, harassment, and retaliation. This is based on the fact that there are many cases on the matter before the courts. Further, the study shows that there is no relationship between training and the ability of the manager to propose the required response after the act. Unique contribution to theory, practice and policy: The study recommends that there is need for organizations to develop action plans that will measure the effectiveness of trainings. There is need to regularly review policies to ensure that they are modern realities such as online harassment. Finally the study recommends amendment of the current employment Act to exclusively require that employers must conduct training on the issues.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 107-120
Author(s):  
Ivon Sandya Sari Putri ◽  
Sri - Raharso ◽  
Tintin Suhaeni

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of in-store music on impulsive buying among college students (as a millennial generation) in Bandung State Polytechnic, employed customer mood as mediator. Data from 200 respondents were received and analyzed using a regression for testing the hypotheses developed.  The results show that the music is significantly affecting the customer's mood and impulsive buying. However, the customer mood does not play significantly affecting impulsive buying. Future research and managerial implications are addressed. Keywords: in-store music, mood, impulsive buying


Author(s):  
Riccardo Miceli McMillan

Abstract Psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy is an emerging psychiatric treatment that is attracting significant scientific, medical, and public attention. Whilst preliminary results from empirical studies are promising, the medical use of these compounds is highly controversial. Surprisingly, and despite the current controversies caused by the re-medicalisation of psychedelics, bioethicists have remained mysteriously silent. This paper aims to stimulate further bioethical reflection regarding the re-medicalisation of psychedelics. The current paper aims to do this by applying a normative phenomenological lens of analysis. Namely, this paper applies Martin Heidegger's critique of modern technology, and Fredrik Svenaeus' extension of this critique, to the re-medicalisation of psychedelics. I argue that when this critique of modern technology is applied several normative issues become apparent. Specifically, it becomes apparent that the re-medicalisation of psychedelics risks turning the ecological sources, cultural contexts, and experiences induced by psychedelics into resources to be exploited for human goals; all of which risks endangering ecosystems, appropriating traditional knowledge, and reducing the therapeutic effects of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy. Furthermore, I suggest that preserving non-reductionist, non-instrumentalising traditional ways of understanding psychedelic compounds is essential in mitigating these consequences. More discussion by bioethicists is necessary as these consequences represent important global challenges for the psychedelic renaissance that require immediate addressing.


2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (03) ◽  
pp. 769-774
Author(s):  
Thamyris Bragioni ◽  
◽  
João Renato Stehmann

The mechanism of explosive dehiscence is rare in fruits in Solanum (Solanaceae), being reported for Solanum sect. Gonatotricum, a small non-aculeate group belonging to the Brevantherum clade. We tested empirically the presence of this strategy in populations of the closely related S. mellobarretoi and S. leptostachys, species belonging to the Leptostemonum clade, a group that comprises most aculeate species of the genus. Our results showed the occurrence of the explosive dehiscence in berries of S. mellobarretoi, but not in S. leptostachys, besides their phylogenetic and morphological similarities. We confirmed the homoplasic nature of the mechanism within the genus and highlight the importance of conducting empirical studies, contributing to reduce knowledge gaps on seed dispersal in the Neotropics.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Emily Clements ◽  
Ute Stephan ◽  
Marcela Miozzo ◽  
Peter Hellyer ◽  
Julie Devonshire ◽  
...  

Research on entrepreneurial cognition and uncertainty has existed for decades, yet most empirical studies have not integrated methods or concepts from neuroscience. To address this, we provide a framework to unpack the micro-foundations of entrepreneurial cognition. Leveraging theories of cognitive control we show how novel actions are produced, and how the resulting uncertainty can be mediated by context, emotions, social cognition, and metacognition. In addition, by summarising where neuroscience methods have already been used and suggesting future research avenues, we aid further investigation into how entrepreneurial thinking can overcome uncertainty to drive innovation.


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