gas pipelines
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N. Simon Kwong ◽  
Kishor S. Jaiswal ◽  
Jack W. Baker ◽  
Nicolas Luco ◽  
Kristin A. Ludwig ◽  

Golam Reza Akbarinia ◽  
Neda Gilani ◽  
Sasan Mohhamadzadeh ◽  
Seyed Shamseddin Alizadeh

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. 100062
Soheil Oruji ◽  
Mehrshad Ketabdar ◽  
Douglas Moon ◽  
Valerie Tsao ◽  
Milad Ketabdar

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 501
Sergey Vorobev ◽  
Anton Kolosnitsyn ◽  
Ilya Minarchenko

This article is devoted to the definition of the most important combinations of objects in critical network infrastructures. This study was carried out using the example of the Russian gas transmission network. Since natural gas is widely used in the energy sector, the gas transmission network can be exposed to terrorist threats, and the actions of intruders can be directed at both gas fields and gas pipelines. A defender–attacker model was proposed to simulate attacks. In this model, the defender solves the maximum flow problem to satisfy the needs of gas consumers. By excluding gas pipelines, the attacker tries to minimize the maximum flow in the gas transmission network. Russian and European gas transmission networks are territorially very extensive and have a significant number of mutual intersections and redundant pipelines. Therefore, one of the approaches to inflicting maximum damage on the system is modeled as an attack on a clique. A clique in this study is several interconnected objects. The article presents the list of the most interconnected sections of main gas pipelines, the failure of which can cause the greatest damage to the system in the form of a gas shortage among consumers. Conclusions were drawn about the applicability of the maximum clique method for identifying the most important objects in network critical infrastructures.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 478
Andrzej J. Osiadacz ◽  
Marta Gburzyńska

The main aim of simulation programs is to study the behavior of gas pipe networks in certain conditions. Solving a specified set of differential equations describing transient (unsteady) flow in a gas pipeline for the adopted parameters of load and supply will help us find out the value of pressure or flow rate at selected points or along selected sections of the network. Transient gas flow may be described by a set of simple or partial differential equations classified as hyperbolic or parabolic. Derivation of the mathematical model of transient gas flow involves certain simplifications, of which one-dimensional flow is most important. It is very important to determine the conditions of pipeline/transmission network operation in which the hyperbolic model and the parabolic model, respectively, should be used. Parabolic models can be solved numerically in a much simpler way and can be used to design simulation programs which allow us to calculate the network of any structure and any number of non-pipe elements. In some conditions, however, they describe the changes occurring in the network less accurately than hyperbolic models do. The need for analysis, control, and optimization of gas flows in high-pressure gas pipelines with complex structure increases significantly. Very often, the time allowed for analysis and making operational decisions is limited. Therefore, efficient models of unsteady gas flows and high-speed algorithms are essential.

Geofluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Deren Liu ◽  
Jiale Yang ◽  
Xu Wang ◽  
Junming Zhao ◽  
Shuochang Xu ◽  

In permafrost regions, long distance buried pipelines are widely used to transport oil and natural gas resources. However, pipeline problems occur frequently due to the complicated surrounding environment and transportation requirement of positive temperature. In this study, a thermal insulation layer was applied to mitigate permafrost degeneration around the buried oil-gas pipelines. Based on engineering background of the Sebei-Xining-Lanzhou natural gas pipeline in China, an indoor model test was designed and carried out in which many key indices, such as the temperature regime, vertical displacement, pipeline wall stress, and water content, were closely monitored. The test results indicate that the large heat loss of the buried pipeline produces a rapid increase in ground temperatures which seriously reduces the bearing capacity of the permafrost foundation. The buried oil-gas pipelines with a thermal insulation layer can effectively reduce the thawing range and vertical displacement of the permafrost foundation around the buried pipelines, so as to control the stress of the pipeline wall in the normal range and protect the safe and stable operation of the buried oil-gas pipelines. The experimental results can serve as a reference for the construction, operation, and maintenance of buried oil-gas pipelines in permafrost regions.

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