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Geofluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Author(s):  
Chen Wang ◽  
Lujie Zhou ◽  
Yujing Jiang ◽  
Xuepeng Zhang ◽  
Jiankang Liu

An appropriate understanding of the hydraulic characteristics of the two-phase flow in the rock fracture network is important in many engineering applications. To investigate the two-phase flow in the fracture network, a study on the two-phase flow characteristics in the intersecting fractures is necessary. In order to describe the two-phase flow in the intersecting fractures quantitatively, in this study, a gas-water two-phase flow experiment was conducted in a smooth 3D model with intersecting fractures. The results in this specific 3D model show that the flow structures in the intersecting fractures were similar to those of the stratified wavy flow in pipes. The nonlinearity induced by inertial force and turbulence in the intersecting fractures cannot be neglected in the two-phase flow, and the Martinelli-Lockhart model is effective for the two-phase flow in intersecting fractures. Delhaye’s model can be adapted for the cases in this experiment. The turbulence of the flow can be indicated by the values of C in Delhaye’s model, but resetting the appropriate range of the values of C is necessary.


Geofluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Author(s):  
Zhaojing Song ◽  
Junqian Li ◽  
Xiaoyan Li ◽  
Ketong Chen ◽  
Chengyun Wang ◽  
...  

Analyzing the characteristics of rock brittleness in low-permeability mudstone and shale (MS) formations is imperative for efficient hydraulic fracturing stimulation. Rock brittleness depends on the mineral composition, organic matter abundance, and bedding structure. Based on the MS from Shahejie Formation mineral composition (clay mineral, felsic mineral, and calcareous mineral contents), total organic content, and bedding structure (laminated, laminar, and massive), six types of lithofacies were identified: clay-rich MS, felsic-rich MS, calcareous-rich MS, clay MS, felsic MS, and calcareous MS. The quartz, feldspar, calcite, and dolomite of the Shahejie Formation are brittle minerals. Consequently, lithofacies with high felsic and calcareous mineral contents are more brittle. In addition, laminated and laminar MS are also conducive to hydraulic fracturing. Therefore, laminated, organic-rich, and calcareous-rich MS are the dominant lithofacies for hydraulic fracturing in the Shahejie Formation. The lithofacies and brittleness index were predicted by the response characteristics between mineral compositions and logging curves. The 3521–3552 m section of well B11x is dominated by calcareous-rich MS with developed laminae, representing a favorable section for hydraulic fracturing. Fragile minerals and oil are widely developed in the lower part of the lower 1st member of the Shahejie Formation (Es1L) in the southwestern part of Zhaohuangzhuang-Suning, where hydraulic fracturing can be used to increase shale oil production.


Geofluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Author(s):  
Yan Li ◽  
Chunsheng Yu ◽  
Kaitao Yuan

A novel approach was proposed for calculating the enriched gas recovery factor based on the theory of two-phase isothermal flash calculations. First, define a new parameter, pseudo formation volume factor of enriched gas, to represent the ratio of the surface volume of produced mixture gas to underground volume of enriched gas. Two logarithmic functions were obtained by matching the flash calculation data, to characterize the relationships between pseudo formation volume factor and the produced gas-oil ratio. These two functions belong to the proportion of liquefied petroleum gas in enriched gas; the proportion is greater than 50% and less than 50%, respectively. Given measured gas-oil ratio and produced gas volume, underground volume of produced enriched gas can be calculated. Injection volume of enriched gas is known; therefore, recovery factor of enriched gas is the ratio of produced to injected volume of enriched gas. This approach is simply to calculate enriched gas recovery factor, because of only needs three parameters, which can be measured directly. New approach was compared to numerical simulation results; mean error is 12%. In addition, new approach can effectively avoid the influence of lean gas on the calculation of enriched gas recycling. Three stages of enriched gas recovery factors in field Z were calculated, and the mean error is 5.62% compared to the field analysis, which proves that the new approach’s correctness and practicability.


Geofluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Author(s):  
Jianfeng Wang ◽  
Yuke Liu ◽  
Chao Yang ◽  
Wenmin Jiang ◽  
Yun Li ◽  
...  

The viscoelastic behavior of minerals in shales is important in predicting the macroscale creep behavior of heterogeneous bulk shale. In this study, in situ indentation measurements of two major constitutive minerals (i.e., quartz and clay) in Longmaxi Formation shale from the Sichuan Basin, South China, were conducted using a nanoindentation technique and high-resolution optical microscope. Firstly, quartz and clay minerals were identified under an optical microscope based on their morphology, surface features, reflection characteristics, particle shapes, and indentation responses. Three viscoelastic models (i.e., three-element Voigt, Burger’s, and two-dashpot Kelvin models) were then used to fit the creep data for both minerals. Finally, the effects of peak load on the viscoelastic behavior of quartz and clay minerals were investigated. Our results show that the sizes of the residual imprints on clay minerals were larger than that of quartz for a specific peak load. Moreover, the initial creep rates and depths in clay minerals were higher than those in quartz. However, the creep rates of quartz and clay minerals displayed similar trends, which were independent of peak load. In addition, all three viscoelastic models produced good fits to the experimental data. However, due to the poor fit in the initial holding stage of the three-element Voigt model and instability of the two-dashpot Kelvin model, Burger’s model is best in obtaining the regression parameters. The regression results indicate that the viscoelastic parameters obtained by these models are associated with peak load, and that a relatively small peak load is more reliable for the determination of viscoelastic parameters. Furthermore, the regression values for the viscoelastic parameters of clay minerals were lower than those of quartz and the bulk shale, suggesting the former facilitates the viscoelastic deformation of shale. Our study provides a better understanding of the nanoscale viscoelastic properties of shale, which can be used to predict the time-dependent deformation of shale.


Geofluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Jun Li ◽  
Wenxia Li ◽  
Weiliang Miao ◽  
Qiliang Tang ◽  
Yongshou Li ◽  
...  

Kunteyi Salt Lake (KSL), located in the northwest of the Qaidam Basin (QB), is rich in polyhalite resources. However, there is no relevant research on the ore-formed temperature of polyhalite in nature, such as KSL. The homogenization temperature ( T h ) of salt mineral inclusions can directly reveal the form temperature of minerals. In view of the poor diagenesis of polyhalite in KSL, almost no polyhalite crystals are formed. Therefore, the ore-formed temperature of polyhalite in KSL is revealed by using the T h of fluid inclusions in halite associated with polyhalite as a substitute index. A total of 472 T h data from 34 halite samples and 34 maximum homogenization temperature ( T hMAX ) data ranged from 17.1°C to 35.5°C, among which 24 data were concentrated at 17-23°C and the average value is 22.1°C. Brine temperature of other salt lakes in QB and paleoclimate characteristics of the study area were combined. It suggests that the temperature conditions of polyhalite mineralization in the study area are generally low. However, under the overall low-temperature background, polyhalite seems to be easily enriched at relatively high temperature; for example, the content of polyhalite is generally high in the first relatively dry and hot salt-forming period, and the brine temperature at the peak stage of polyhalite at 45 m is relatively high, which indicates that the high temperature conditions promote the formation of polyhalite in KSL. As far as the overall relationship between temperature and polyhalite is concerned, polyhalite is deposited at both low temperature and relatively high temperature, which verifies the previous understanding that polyhalite is a mineral with wide temperature phase, and also shows that temperature has a limited effect on polyhalite formation under natural conditions. In addition, combined with the chemical composition of halite fluid inclusions, it is found that the concentration of Mg2+ in nature has an influence on the temperature measurement process. According to the previous experimental research, speculate that the actual temperature of ancient brine and ore-formed temperature of polyhalite in KSL are lower than the measured T h . The confirmation of the influence of Mg2+ on temperature measurement is convenient for more accurate reconstruction of the metallogenic temperature of evaporite such as polyhalite. The research on the ore-formed temperature of KSL polyhalite enriches and perfects the polyhalite mineralization theory and provides theoretical basis for the basic and applied research of polyhalite.


Geofluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Author(s):  
Teng Lu ◽  
Faqiang Dang ◽  
Haitao Wang ◽  
Qingmin Zhao ◽  
Zhengxiao Xu

Nanoparticle-assisted microwave heating of heavy oil has the advantages of fast temperature rise and high thermal efficiency. Compared with traditional heating methods, it can reduce viscosity in a shorter time. In addition, the heavy components in the heavy oil are cracked into light components at high temperatures (this high temperature cannot be reached by conventional heating methods). This process is irreversible and avoids the problem of viscosity recovery of heavy oil after the temperature is reduced. Through absorbing microwave heating experiments, study the effect of nanoparticles on the improvement of the ability of heavy oil to absorb waves and raise temperature; through the heavy oil upgrading experiment and the four-component analysis experiment, the effect of adding hydrogen donor to assist microwave on the viscosity reduction of heavy oil upgrading by nanoparticles was studied, and the problem of viscosity recovery was determined; Through the gravity drainage experiment, the mechanism of nanoparticle-assisted microwave to improve the recovery of heavy oil is studied, and the influence of water content, nanocatalyst, and microwave power on the production of drainage is analyzed. The results show that nanoparticles can improve the wave absorption and heating capacity of heavy oil, and adding 0.6 wt% of nanomagnetic iron oxide catalyst can increase the heating rate of heavy oil in microwave by 60.6%; nanoparticle-assisted microwave heating method can effectively upgrade heavy oil and reduce viscosity. The experimental conditions are 2 wt% tetralin mass concentration, 0.5 wt% nano-Fe3O4 particle mass concentration, microwave heating time 50-60 min, and microwave power 539 W. Under this experimental condition, the viscosity is reduced by 40%. This method has viscosity recovery problems, but final viscosity reduction effect is still very significant. Obtaining the mechanism of nanoparticle-assisted microwave to enhance oil recovery, one of which is that nanoparticles improve the wave absorption and heating capacity of heavy oil and increase the heating speed of heavy oil; the second is that the nanoparticles form local high temperature under the action of microwave, which catalyzes the hydrocracking reaction between the heavy components in the heavy oil and the hydrogen donor, upgrading and reducing the viscosity of the heavy oil, and accelerating the production of heavy oil.


Geofluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Han-Dong Liu ◽  
Jia-Xing Chen ◽  
Zhi-Fei Guo ◽  
Dong-Dong Li ◽  
Ya-Feng Zhang

The failure of locked segment-type slopes is often affected by rainfall, earthquake, and other external loads. Rainfall scours the slope and weakens the mechanical properties of rock-soil mass. At the same time, rainfall infiltrates into cracks of slope rock mass. Under the action of in situ stress, hydraulic fracturing leads to the development and expansion of rock cracks, which increases the risk of slope instability. Under seismic force, the slope will be subjected to large horizontal inertial force, resulting in slope instability. In this paper, a self-developed loading device was used to simulate the external loads such as rainfall and earthquake, and the model tests are carried out to study the evolution mechanism of landslide with retaining wall locked segment. Three-dimensional laser scanner, microearth pressure sensors, and high-definition camera are applied for the high-precision monitoring of slope shape, deformation, and stress. Test results show that the retaining wall locked segment has an important control effect on landslide stability. The characteristics of deformation evolution and stress response of landslide with retaining wall locked segment are analyzed and studied by changing the slope shape, earth pressure, and the displacement cloud map. The evolutionary process of landslide with retaining wall locked segment is summarized. Experimental results reveal that as the landslide with retaining wall locked segment is at failure, the upper part of the landslide thrusts and slides and the retaining wall produces a locking effect; the middle part extrudes and uplifts, which is accompanied with shallow sliding; and compression-shear fracture of the locked segment leads to the landslide failure.


Geofluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Author(s):  
Xiao Feng ◽  
Chong Xia ◽  
Sifeng Zhang ◽  
Chuangui Li ◽  
Hongkui Zhao ◽  
...  

In the treatment of goafs in traffic engineering, technical problems such as those related to large-volume grouting and the precise control of material properties are often encountered. To address these issues, we developed a new composite material comprising cement-fly ash-modified sodium silicate (C-FA-MS). The setting time, fluidity, unconfined compressive strength, and microstructure were varied for different proportions of cement-sodium silicate (C-S) slurry, cement-fly ash-sodium silicate (C-FA-S) slurry, and C-FA-MS slurry, and their performances were compared and analysed. The experimental results showed that the initial setting time of the slurry was the shortest when both the original sodium silicate volume ratio ( V S ) and modified sodium silicate volume ratio ( V MS ) were 0.2. The final setting time of the C-S and C-FA-S slurries tended to decrease but then increased with decrease in V S , while that of the C-FA-MS slurry increased with lower V MS . The fluidity of the C-FA-S and C-FA-MS slurries decreased with decrease in V S or V MS at different fly ash admixture ratios. The consolidation compressive strength of C-S increased with decreasing V S , while that of C-FA-S showed a considerable increase only when V S decreased from 0.4 to 0.2. Meanwhile, the compressive strength of the C-FA-MS concretions first increased and then decreased with decrease in V MS . Microstructural analysis revealed that there were more cracks in the C-S agglomerate, the fly ash in the C-FA-S agglomerate reduced the relative density of the skeletal structure, and the stronger cross-linking in the C-FA-MS agglomerate improved the strength of the agglomerate. Under the condition of unit grouting volume, the cost of the C-FA-MS slurry was approximately 44.7% and 31.3% lower than that of the C-S and C-FA-S slurries, respectively. The new C-FA-MS material was applied for the treatment of the goaf in the Wu Sizhuang coal mine. Core drilling detection and audiofrequency magnetotelluric survey revealed that the goaf was sufficiently filled.


Geofluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Tao Zhang ◽  
Yumei Li ◽  
Hui Lu ◽  
Jianing Jiang

The radial jet drilling (RJD) is a key technology to improve the development efficiency of low-permeability oil and gas resources. In order to seek a reasonable hydraulic engineering parameter combination of hydraulic radial jet drilling, to obtain the optimal hydraulic energy distribution, a jet radial horizontal drilling simulation experiment system of the casing windowing is designed. A sequence of experimental investigations focused on engineering parameters of pump displacement, rotating speed, and frequency of high-pressure plunger pump is performed, and the operability and the feasibility of the experiment are verified. To evaluate the maximum drillable length and the self-propelled force of a jet nozzle, a 3D numerical model based on ANSYS-CFX is developed to evaluate the effects of the inlet flow displacement, the flow rates ratio K , and the angle ratio F : B of the forward orifice and backward orifice of the jet nozzle on its maximum drillable length and self-propelled force by sensitivity analysis. Finally, the comparison of numerical simulation results (Ln), mathematical results (Lm), and experiment results (Le) of the maximum drillable length are presented. It is observed that the simulation results are consistent with the experiment results with an average accuracy of 97.07%. Therefore, the proposed numerical model has a good performance in predicting the maximum drillable length of the multiorifice nozzle. The research results can provide theoretical guidance for improving the rock breaking and drilling capability of radial jet drilling technology.


Geofluids ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Author(s):  
Rui Shen ◽  
Zhiming Hu ◽  
Xianggang Duan ◽  
Wei Sun ◽  
Wei Xiong ◽  
...  

Shale gas reservoirs have pores of various sizes, in which gas flows in different patterns. The coexistence of multiple gas flow patterns is common. In order to quantitatively characterize the flow pattern in the process of shale gas depletion development, a physical simulation experiment of shale gas depletion development was designed, and a high-pressure on-line NMR analysis method of gas flow pattern in this process was proposed. The signal amplitudes of methane in pores of various sizes at different pressure levels were calculated according to the conversion relationship between the NMR T 2 relaxation time and pore radius, and then, the flow patterns of methane in pores of various sizes under different pore pressure conditions were analyzed as per the flow pattern determination criteria. It is found that there are three flow patterns in the process of shale gas depletion development, i.e., continuous medium flow, slip flow, and transitional flow, which account for 73.5%, 25.8%, and 0.7% of total gas flow, respectively. When the pore pressure is high, the continuous medium flow is dominant. With the gas production in shale reservoir, the pore pressure decreases, the Knudsen number increases, and the pore size range of slip flow zone and transitional flow zone expands. When the reservoir pressure is higher than the critical desorption pressure, the adsorbed gas is not desorbed intensively, and the produced gas is mainly free gas. When the reservoir pressure is lower than the critical desorption pressure, the adsorbed gas is gradually desorbed, and the proportion of desorbed gas in the produced gas gradually increases.


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