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2022 ◽  
Vol 99 ◽  
pp. 102177
Mikio Takebayashi ◽  
Hiromichi Yamaguchi

Yazan Alkhlefat ◽  
Sevia Mahdaliza Idrus Sutan Nameh ◽  
Farabi M. Iqbal

Current and future wireless communication systems are designed to achieve the user’s demands such as high data rate and high speed with low latency and simultaneously to save bandwidth and spectrum. In 5G and 6G networks, a high speed of transmitting and switching is required for internet of things (IoT) applications with higher capacity. To achieve these requirements a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is considered as a wavelength converter to transmit a signal with an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with subcarrier power modulation (OFDM-SPM). It exploits the subcarrier’s power in conventional OFDM block in order to send additional bits beside the normally transmitted bits. In this paper, we optimized the SOA’s parameters to have efficient wavelength conversion process. These parameters are included the injection current (IC) of SOA, power of pump and probe signals. A 7 Gbps OFDM-SPM signal with a millimeter waves (MMW) carrier of 80 GHz is considered for signal switching. The simulation results investigated and analyzed the performance of the designed system in terms of error vector magnitude (EVM), bit error rate (BER) and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR). The optimum value of IC is 0.6 A while probe power is 9.45 and 8.9 dBm for pump power. The simulation is executed by virtual photonic integrated (VPI) software.

Mustapha El Alaoui ◽  
Karim El Khadiri ◽  
Rachid El Alami ◽  
Ahmed Tahiri ◽  
Ahmed Lakhssassi ◽  

A new Li-Ion battery charger interface (BCI) using pulse control (PC) technique is designed and analyzed in this paper. Thanks to the use of PC technique, the main standards of the Li-Ion battery charger, i.e. fast charge, small surface area and high efficiency, are achieved. The proposed charger achieves full charge in forty-one minutes passing by the constant current (CC) charging mode which also included the start-up and the constant voltage mode (CV) charging mode. It designed, simulated and layouted which occupies a small size area 0.1 mm2 by using Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company 180 nm complementary metal oxide semi-conductor technology (TSMC 180 nm CMOS) technology in Cadence Virtuoso software. The battery voltage VBAT varies between 2.9 V to 4.35 V and the maximum battery current IBAT is 2.1 A in CC charging mode, according to a maximum input voltage VIN equal 5 V. The maximum charging efficiency reaches 98%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Skandha Deepsita S ◽  
Dhayala Kumar M ◽  
Noor Mahammad SK

The approximate hardware design can save huge energy at the cost of errors incurred in the design. This article proposes the approximate algorithm for low-power compressors, utilized to build approximate multiplier with low energy and acceptable error profiles. This article presents two design approaches (DA1 and DA2) for higher bit size approximate multipliers. The proposed multiplier of DA1 have no propagation of carry signal from LSB to MSB, resulted in a very high-speed design. The increment in delay, power, and energy are not exponential with increment of multiplier size ( n ) for DA1 multiplier. It can be observed that the maximum combinations lie in the threshold Error Distance of 5% of the maximum value possible for any particular multiplier of size n . The proposed 4-bit DA1 multiplier consumes only 1.3 fJ of energy, which is 87.9%, 78%, 94%, 67.5%, and 58.9% less when compared to M1, M2, LxA, MxA, accurate designs respectively. The DA2 approach is recursive method, i.e., n -bit multiplier built with n/2-bit sub-multipliers. The proposed 8-bit multiplication has 92% energy savings with Mean Relative Error Distance (MRED) of 0.3 for the DA1 approach and at least 11% to 40% of energy savings with MRED of 0.08 for the DA2 approach. The proposed multipliers are employed in the image processing algorithm of DCT, and the quality is evaluated. The standard PSNR metric is 55 dB for less approximation and 35 dB for maximum approximation.

Mohd Firdaus Mohd Ab Halim ◽  
Erwan Sulaiman ◽  
Mahyuzie Jenal ◽  
Raja Nor Firdaus Kashfi Raja Othman ◽  
Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed Othman

The inclusion of a high energy density permanent magnet into magnetic gear improves the machine's torque density. However, it also contributes to eddy current loss, especially in a high-speed application such in electric vehicle. In this paper, the losses from eddy current and iron loss are investigated on concentric magnetic gear (CMG). Torque multiplier CMG is designed with 8/3 gear ratio for this study. Iron loss and eddy current loss are compared and discussed. Based on this study, eddy current loss contributes to almost 96% of the total loss. This finding is hoped to direct the researcher to focus more on reducing loss associated with eddy current loss.

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