earthquake risk
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N. Simon Kwong ◽  
Kishor S. Jaiswal ◽  
Jack W. Baker ◽  
Nicolas Luco ◽  
Kristin A. Ludwig ◽  

2022 ◽  
Sanish Bhochhibhoya ◽  
Roisha Maharjan

Abstract. As Nepal is at high risk of earthquakes, the district-wide (VDC/Municipality level) study has been performed for vulnerability assessment of seismic-hazard, and the hazard-risk study is incorporated with social conditions as it has become a crucial issue in recent years. There is an interrelationship between hazards, physical risk, and the social characteristics of populations which are significant for policy-makers and individuals. Mapping the spatial variability of average annual loss (seismic risk) and social vulnerability discretely does not reflect the true nature of parameters contributing to the earthquake risk, so when the integrated risk is mapped, such combined spatial distribution becomes more evident. The purpose of this paper is to compute the risk analysis from the exposure model of the country using OpenQuake and then integrate the results with socio-economic parameters. The methodology of seismic-risk assessment and the way of combining the results of the physical risk and socio-economic data to develop an integrated vulnerability score of the regions has been described. This study considers all 75 districts and corresponding VDC/Municipalities using the available census. The combined vulnerability score has been developed and presented by integrating earthquake risk and social vulnerability aspects of the country and represented in form of the map produced using ArcGIS 10. The knowledge and information of the relationship between earthquake hazards and the demographic characteristics of the population in the vulnerable area are imperative to mitigate the local impact of earthquakes. Therefore, we utilize social vulnerability study as part of a comprehensive risk management framework to recuperate and recover from natural disasters.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 470
Cvetan Sinadinovski ◽  
Snježana Markušić ◽  
Davor Stanko ◽  
Kevin F. McCue ◽  
Lazo Pekevski

In this study, we analyzed the near-field seismic records of two moderate sized earthquakes in the Western Balkan region: the September 2016 Skopje earthquake, magnitude ML5.3 and the March 2020 Zagreb earthquake, magnitude ML5.5. Such recordings at close epicentral distances are rare and are thus very useful for testing some of the theoretical assumptions used in modeling earthquake risk. Firstly, response spectra were computed using the digital time histories for the three closest stations to the Skopje 2016 earthquake and the two closest stations to the Zagreb 2020 earthquake. Their characteristics were examined in terms of frequency and peak amplitude ranges. Secondly, the Nakamura method was applied to the records from the selected five stations coded SKO, FCE, IZIIS, QUHS, and QARH. The results of the spectral analysis were compared with interpretations from the geological and geotechnical maps at each location. Our findings support the idea that these combined methods can be used to categorize the underlying structural profile to a first approximation and can be used to derive velocity models.

2022 ◽  
Uttama Barua ◽  
Mehedi Ahmed Ansary ◽  
Ishrat Islam

Abstract Risk-Sensitive Land Use Planning (RSLUP) is the process of mainstreaming disaster risk management parameters in land use planning. To ensure the effectiveness and sustainability of RSLUP, it is necessary to identify and understand the existing risk sensitivity of the land use plan. This research aims to develop a GIS-based multi-criteria zoning approach for mapping earthquake risk sensitivity of the land use plan of a local level area. For this purpose, Uttara Residential Model Town (URMT) (third phase), Dhaka, Bangladesh has been selected as the study area considering its earthquake risk for exposure to a potential earthquake. The methodology applied in this research is comprised of two steps. Firstly, assessment of the spatial earthquake risk sensitivity of the proposed land use plan of the study area based on the risk themes and corresponding risk attributes including both natural characteristics as well as built environment factors. They are macro-form risks (seismic hazard assessment), risks in urban texture (proximity from primary roads), special risk areas (geomorphic suitability and proximity from waterbody), open space scarcity risk, and risks in critical facilities (potential temporary disaster shelter and health facilities). Secondly, preparation of earthquake risk sensitivity zoning map by overlaying the spatial risk attribute maps based on weights determined through Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). This research brings out the importance and a methodology to assess risk sensitivity of the land use of an area at the local level, which can further foster sustainable RSLUP reflecting the risk sensitivity accordingly and effectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 70 (2) ◽  
pp. 3763-3780
Wenquan Jin ◽  
Naeem Iqbal ◽  
Hee-Cheal Kang ◽  
Dohyeun Kim

Chunyang He ◽  
Qingxu Huang ◽  
Xuemei Bai ◽  
Derek T. Robinson ◽  
Peijun Shi ◽  

AbstractUrbanization can be a challenge and an opportunity for earthquake risk mitigation. However, little is known about the changes in exposure (for example, population and urban land) to earthquakes in the context of global urbanization, and their impacts on fatalities in earthquake-prone areas. We present a global analysis of the changes in population size and urban land area in earthquake-prone areas from 1990 to 2015, and their impacts on earthquake-related fatalities. We found that more than two thirds of population growth (or 70% of total population in 2015) and nearly three quarters of earthquake-related deaths (or 307,918 deaths) in global earthquake-prone areas occurred in developing countries with an urbanization ratio (percentage of urban population to total population) between 20 and 60%. Holding other factors constant, population size was significantly and positively associated with earthquake fatalities, while the area of urban land was negatively related. The results suggest that fatalities increase for areas where the urbanization ratio is low, but after a ratio between 40 and 50% occurs, earthquake fatalities decline. This finding suggests that the resistance of building and infrastructure is greater in countries with higher urbanization ratios and highlights the need for further investigation. Our quantitative analysis is extended into the future using Shared Socioeconomic Pathways to reveal that by 2050, more than 50% of the population increase in global earthquake-prone areas will take place in a few developing countries (Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh) that are particularly vulnerable to earthquakes. To reduce earthquake-induced fatalities, enhanced resilience of buildings and urban infrastructure generally in these few countries should be a priority.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Franziska Glueer ◽  
Mauro Häusler ◽  
Valentin Gischig ◽  
Donat Fäh

In the past decade, ambient vibration measurements found numerous applications on unstable rock slopes and developed into a powerful tool for site characterization of slope instabilities. In this study, for the first time ambient vibration measurements were applied to a rock mass strongly disturbed and damaged by subsurface explosions. The site above the ammunition storage chamber at Mitholz (Switzerland) is especially interesting because the subsurface geology below the seismic array is well known, including the location of the caverns, and the degree of degradation caused by the subsurface explosions in 1947 of around 40 t TNT of ammunition. Measurement data were analyzed using current state-of-the-art seismic single-station and array methods, focusing on surface-wave dispersion analysis, wave field polarization, wave amplification using site-to-reference spectral ratios and analysis of normal mode behavior. The results allow for calibrating the elastic properties of a 2D numerical rock mechanical model which was used to simulate the stability of the disturbed rock mass during seismic loading. Therefore, ambient vibration measurements can contribute not only to a better understanding of the subsurface, but also for the assessment of earthquake risk.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Jinlong Chu ◽  
Qiang Zhang ◽  
Ai Wang ◽  
Haoran Yu

Assessing seismic risk is an essential element of urban risk management and urban spatial security work. In response to the issues posed by the complexity and openness of urban systems, the nonlinearity of driving factors, and sudden changes in geological processes that affect urban seismic research, this paper is based on a variety of intelligent algorithms to develop a hybrid intelligent model that integrates probability and vulnerability to evaluate and quantify the difference in the urban spatial units distribution of earthquake risk. We applied this model to Hefei, one of the few superlarge provincial capital cities on the “Tancheng-Lujiang” fault zone, one of the four major earthquake zones in China, which suffers frequent earthquakes. Our method combined the genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and backpropagation neural network methods (BP) to automatically calculate rules from inputted data on known seismic events and predict the probability of seismic events in unknown areas. Then, based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), spatial appraisal and valuation of environment and ecosystems method (SAVEE), and EMYCIN model, an urban seismic vulnerability was evaluated from the four perspectives of buildings, risk of secondary disasters, socioeconomic conditions, and urban emergency response capabilities. In the next step, the overall urban seismic risk was obtained by standardizing and superimposing seismic probability and vulnerability. Using the hybrid intelligent model, earthquake probability, seismic vulnerability, and overall seismic risk were obtained for Hefei, and the spatial characteristics of its overall seismic risk were examined. This study concludes that areas with very high, high, low, and very low earthquake risk in Hefei account for 8.10%, 31.90%, 40.94%, and 19.06% of its total area, respectively. Areas with very high earthquake risk are concentrated in the old city, the government affairs district, Science City, and Xinzhan District. This study concludes that government authorities of Hefei should target earthquake safety measures consisting of basic earthquake mitigation measures and pre- and postearthquake emergency measures. In the face of regional disasters such as earthquakes, coordinating and governing should be strengthened between cities and regions.

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