Pituitary Apoplexy
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Burak CABUK ◽  
Necdet Selim Kaya ◽  
Caner POLAT ◽  
Abidin Murat Geyik ◽  
Dilek ICLI ◽  

Amalina Che Din ◽  
Celine Fong ◽  
Chon Sum Ong

The occurrence of symptomatic Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) apoplexy is extremely rare. This is often misdiagnosed due to similar presentations to subarachnoid haemorrhage and pituitary apoplexy. This case highlights an excellent example of similar clinical presentation and serves as a learning case for clinicians. A 40-year-old lady presented to a district hospital with 9 days of worsening severe headache associated with blurring of vision, photophobia, stiff neck, nausea and vomiting. Nuchal rigidity and Brudzinski’s positive. Blood test showed hyponatremia, raised inflammatory markers and normal dynamic pituitary function test. CT Head demonstrated no evidence of space-occupying lesion or intracranial haemorrhage. Lumbar puncture showed xanthochromia positive consistent with subarachnoid haemorrhage. MRI head advised by Neurosurgery team and revealed a focal lesion involving anterior pituitary macroadenoma with mass effect on optic chiasm with possible haemorrhage within. Further assessment in tertiary hospital confirmed loss of visual acuity and field deficit. Patient underwent emergency endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal resection of apoplectic tumour and repair of CSF leak with graft from thigh. Histopathology report showed a Rathke’s cleft cyst with squamous metaplasia. Post operatively, the patient developed sinusitis which fully recovered, and MRI showed good decompression. The author demonstrated a rare case of symptomatic RCC which was initially presumed to be pituitary apoplexy. Radiology imaging and treatment approach for both conditions are quite similar and can only be differentiated by histopathology. Further research is required to identify the causes and risk factors of RCC apoplexy to aid early detection and diagnosis.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue-2: 2021 Page: S23

Alan Siu ◽  
Sanjeet Rangarajan ◽  
Michael Karsy ◽  
Christopher J. Farrell ◽  
Gurston Nyquist ◽  

Abstract Introduction Pituitary apoplexy is an uncommon clinical condition that can require urgent surgical intervention, but the factors resulting in recurrent apoplexy remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine the risks of a recurrent apoplexy and better understand the goals of surgical treatment. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for all consecutive patients diagnosed and surgically treated for pituitary apoplexy from 2004 to 2021. Univariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with recurrent apoplexy. Results A total of 115 patients were diagnosed with pituitary apoplexy with 11 patients showing recurrent apoplexy. This occurred at a rate of 2.2 cases per 100 patient-years of follow-up. There were no major differences in demographic factors, such as hypertension or anticoagulation use. There were no differences in tumor locations, cavernous sinus invasion, or tumor volumes (6.84 ± 4.61 vs. 9.15 ± 8.45 cm, p = 0.5). Patients with recurrent apoplexy were less likely to present with headache (27.3%) or ophthalmoplegia (9.1%). Recurrent apoplexy was associated with prior radiation (0.0 vs. 27.3%, p = 0.0001) and prior subtotal resection (10.6 vs. 90.9%, p = 0.0001) compared with first time apoplexy. The mean time to recurrent apoplexy was 48.3 ± 76.9 months and no differences in overall follow-up were seen in this group. Conclusion Recurrent pituitary apoplexy represents a rare event with limited understanding of pathophysiology. Prior STR and radiation treatment are associated with an increased risk. The relatively long time from the first apoplectic event to a recurrence suggests long-term patient follow-up is necessary.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (10) ◽  
Marwah A. Elsehety ◽  
Hussein A. Zeineddine ◽  
Andrew D. Barreto ◽  
Spiros L. Blackburn

BACKGROUND Large pituitary adenomas can rarely cause compression of the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) due to chronic tumor compression or invasion. Here, the authors present a case of pituitary apoplexy causing acute bilateral ICA occlusion with resultant stroke. Our middle-aged patient presented with sudden vision loss and experienced rapid deterioration requiring intubation. Computed tomography (CT) angiography revealed a large pituitary mass causing severe stenosis of the bilateral ICAs. CT perfusion revealed a significant perfusion delay in the anterior circulation. The patient was taken for cerebral angiography, and balloon angioplasty was attempted with no improvement in arterial flow. Resection of the tumor was then performed, with successful restoration of blood flow. Despite restoration of luminal patency, the patient experienced bilateral ICA infarcts. OBSERVATIONS Pituitary apoplexy can present as an acute stroke due to flow-limiting carotid compression. Balloon angioplasty is ineffective for the treatment of this type of compression. Surgical removal of the tumor restores the flow and luminal caliber of the ICA. LESSONS Pituitary apoplexy can be a rare presentation of acute stroke and should be managed with immediate surgical decompression rather than attempted angioplasty in order to restore blood flow and prevent the development of cerebral ischemia.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (3) ◽  
pp. 603-605
Sinan Bahadir

Retroclival subdural hemorrhage is a rare entity. Apart from trauma, it may occur due to rupture of an aneurysm, pituitary apoplexy and spontaneously. Very few cases are associated with bleeding disorders.A 62-year-old female patient who was under warfarin treatment was found to have subdural hemorrhage in the retroclival area. Headache complaint was rapidly relieved by steroid treatment. She fully recovered in a month. Spontaneous retroclival hemorrhage is rarely associated with anticoagulant agents. Though it’s hardly a lethal condition, steroids can provide quick pain relief.

2021 ◽  
pp. 101368
Kate T. Carroll ◽  
James Bales ◽  
Courtney E. Francis ◽  
Mohamed L. Sorror ◽  
Manuel J. Ferreira

Thirumalai V. Srivatsan ◽  
Haroon M. Pillay ◽  
Lakshay Raheja

AbstractPituitary apoplexy (PA) is a clinical diagnosis comprising a sudden onset of headache, neurological deficits, endocrine disturbances, altered consciousness, visual loss, or ophthalmoplegia. However, clinically, the presentation of PA is extremely variable and occasionally fatal. While meningitis and cerebral infarcts are themselves serious diseases, they are rarely seen as manifestations of PA and are exceedingly rare when present together.We present the case of a 20-year-old male with a rapid progression of symptoms of meningitis, PA and stroke. The present article seeks to emphasize a rare manifestation of PA with an attempt to understand the intricacies of its evaluation and management.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (5) ◽  
Jian-Dong Zhu ◽  
Sungel Xie ◽  
Ling Xu ◽  
Ming-Xiang Xie ◽  
Shun-Wu Xiao

BACKGROUND Approximately 0.6% to 12% of cases of pituitary adenoma are complicated by apoplexy, and nearly 6% of pituitary adenomas are comorbid aneurysms. Occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) with hidden intracranial aneurysm due to compression by an apoplectic pituitary adenoma is extremely rare; thus, the surgical strategy is also unknown. OBSERVATIONS The authors reported the case of a 48-year-old man with a large pituitary adenoma with coexisting ICA occlusion. After endoscopic transnasal surgery, repeated computed tomography angiography (CTA) demonstrated reperfusion of the left ICA but with a new-found aneurysm in the left posterior communicating artery; thus, interventional aneurysm embolization was performed. With stable recovery and improved neurological condition, the patient was discharged for rehabilitation training. LESSONS For patients with pituitary apoplexy accompanied by a rapid decrease of neurological conditions, emergency decompression through endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal resection can achieve satisfactory results. However, with occlusion of the ICA by enlarged pituitary adenoma or pituitary apoplexy, a hidden but rare intracranial aneurysm may be considered when patients are at high risk of such vascular disease as aneurysm, and gentle intraoperative manipulations are required. Performing CTA or digital subtraction angiography before and after surgery can effectively reduce the missed diagnosis of comorbidity and thus avoid life-threatening bleeding events from the accidental rupture of an aneurysm.

2021 ◽  
Vol 59 (239) ◽  
Biraj Pokhrel ◽  
Shambhu Khanal ◽  
Parikshit Chapagain ◽  
Gopal Sedain

Cerebral infarction is a rare complication of pituitary apoplexy, which can result in significant morbidity if not treated on time. Pituitary apoplexy mostly occurs in pre-existing adenoma, which can remain undiagnosed until symptoms arise. Here, we present a case of a 26-year-old man with undiagnosed acromegaly who presented with left retro-orbital pain, diminished vision of the left eye, and right hemiparesis. Neuroimaging revealed large hemorrhagic sellar mass and ischemic infarction in the left middle cerebral artery territory. Emergency transcranial tumor excision was done, which resulted in significant neurological recovery.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (8) ◽  
pp. e242353
Franziska Geissler ◽  
Irene Hoesli ◽  
Monya Todesco Bernasconi

Pituitary apoplexy is caused by haemorrhage or infarction of the pituitary gland. Presenting signs and symptoms often include severe headache, visual disturbance, ophthalmoplegia, altered consciousness and impaired pituitary function. The management of pituitary apoplexy has very rarely been described during pregnancy and there is no existing data for further pregnancies of affected women. We present a case of a woman with a recurrent pituitary apoplexy due to haemorrhages in a pituitary adenoma in her third and fourth pregnancies. In both pregnancies, the pituitary apoplexy was managed conservatively, but due to therapy-resistant headaches, a preterm delivery was implemented.

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