lymphoblastic leukemia
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
U. A. Awan ◽  
N. Farooq ◽  
A. Sarwar ◽  
H. M. S. Jehangir ◽  
M. S. Hashmi ◽  

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.

Karthik Srevatsa ◽  
Garima Jain ◽  
Deepam Pushpam ◽  
Aparna Ningombam ◽  
Anita Chopra

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 426
Giuliana Beneduce ◽  
Antonia De Matteo ◽  
Pio Stellato ◽  
Anna M. Testi ◽  
Nicoletta Bertorello ◽  

Five-year event-free survival in pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) currently exceeds 80–85%. However, 15–20% of patients still experience a relapsed/refractory disease. From 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2020, thirty-nine patients, 0–21 years old with r/r BCP-ALL were treated with blinatumomab with the aim of inducing remission (n = 13) or reducing MRD levels (n = 26) in the frame of different multiagent chemotherapy schedules, in seven AIEOP centers. Patients were treated in compassionate and/or off-label settings and were not enrolled in any controlled clinical trials. Treatment was well tolerated; 22 (56.4%) patients reported adverse events (AE) on a total of 46 events registered, of which 27 (58.7%) were ≤2 grade according to CTCAE. Neurological AEs were 18 (39.1%); only two patients required transient blinatumomab discontinuation. Complete remission (CR) rate was 46% for the 13 patients treated with ≥5% blasts and 81% PCR/FC MRD negativity in the 26 patients with blasts < 5%. Median relapse-free survival was 33.4 months (95% CI; 7.5–59.3); median overall survival was not reached over a mean follow-up of 16 months. In our study, as in other real-life experiences, blinatumomab proved to be effective and well-tolerated, able to induce a high rate of CR and MRD negativity.

Leukemia ◽  
2022 ◽  
Felix Seyfried ◽  
Felix Uli Stirnweiß ◽  
Alexandra Niedermayer ◽  
Stefanie Enzenmüller ◽  
Rebecca Louise Hörl ◽  

AbstractTargeting BCL-2, a key regulator of survival in B-cell malignancies including precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has become a promising treatment strategy. However, given the redundancy of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins (BCL-2, BCL-XL, MCL-1), single targeting may not be sufficient. When analyzing the effects of BH3-mimetics selectively targeting BCL-XL and MCL-1 alone or in combination with the BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax, heterogeneous sensitivity to either of these inhibitors was found in ALL cell lines and in patient-derived xenografts. Interestingly, some venetoclax-resistant leukemias were sensitive to the MCL-1-selective antagonist S63845 and/or BCL-XL-selective A-1331852 suggesting functional mutual substitution. Consequently, co-inhibition of BCL-2 and MCL-1 or BCL-XL resulted in synergistic apoptosis induction. Functional analysis by BH3-profiling and analysis of protein complexes revealed that venetoclax-treated ALL cells are dependent on MCL-1 and BCL-XL, indicating that MCL-1 or BCL-XL provide an Achilles heel in BCL-2-inhibited cells. The effect of combining BCL-2 and MCL-1 inhibition by venetoclax and S63845 was evaluated in vivo and strongly enhanced anti-leukemia activity was found in a pre-clinical patient-derived xenograft model. Our study offers in-depth molecular analysis of mutual substitution of BCL-2 family proteins in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and provides targets for combination treatment in vivo and in ongoing clinical studies.

Haematologica ◽  
2022 ◽  
Marco Cerrano ◽  
Massimiliano Bonifacio ◽  
Matteo Olivi ◽  
Antonio Curti ◽  
Michele Malagola ◽  

Not available.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 382
Felix M. Onyije ◽  
Ann Olsson ◽  
Dan Baaken ◽  
Friederike Erdmann ◽  
Martin Stanulla ◽  

Leukemia is the most common type of cancer among children and adolescents worldwide. The aim of this umbrella review was (1) to provide a synthesis of the environmental risk factors for the onset of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by exposure window, (2) evaluate their strength of evidence and magnitude of risk, and as an example (3) estimate the prevalence in the German population, which determines the relevance at the population level. Relevant systematic reviews and pooled analyses were identified and retrieved through PubMed, Web of Science databases and lists of references. Only two risk factors (low doses of ionizing radiation in early childhood and general pesticide exposure during maternal preconception/pregnancy) were convincingly associated with childhood ALL. Other risk factors including extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-MF), living in proximity to nuclear facilities, petroleum, benzene, solvent, and domestic paint exposure during early childhood, all showed some level of evidence of association. Maternal consumption of coffee (high consumption/>2 cups/day) and cola (high consumption) during pregnancy, paternal smoking during the pregnancy of the index child, maternal intake of fertility treatment, high birth weight (≥4000 g) and caesarean delivery were also found to have some level of evidence of association. Maternal folic acid and vitamins intake, breastfeeding (≥6 months) and day-care attendance, were inversely associated with childhood ALL with some evidence. The results of this umbrella review should be interpreted with caution; as the evidence stems almost exclusively from case-control studies, where selection and recall bias are potential concerns, and whether the empirically observed association reflect causal relationships remains an open question. Hence, improved exposure assessment methods including accurate and reliable measurement, probing questions and better interview techniques are required to establish causative risk factors of childhood leukemia, which is needed for the ultimate goal of primary prevention.

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