carotid artery
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2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 832-842
Rui-Juan Su ◽  
Jun-Meng Zhang ◽  
Tao Chen ◽  
Yan-Hong Huang

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 748-752
Zineb Zerouali Boukhal ◽  
Aicha Merzem ◽  
Vianney Ndayishimiye ◽  
Omar Amriss ◽  
Hasna Belgadir ◽  

Shigeta Miyake ◽  
Ryosuke Suzuki ◽  
Taisuke Akimoto ◽  
Yu Iida ◽  
Wataru Shimohigoshi ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Nasel Christian ◽  
Poetsch Angelina ◽  
Brunner Cornelia ◽  
Moser Ewald

Abstract Background Fenestration of the cervical segment of the internal carotid artery is a very rare finding, and its origin is still not fully understood. Explanations of its genesis range from dissections leading to the fenestration to the more common interpretation as a developmental vascular variant. However, most reported cases were symptomatic and presented with dissections, where even endovascular treatment of the fenestration of the cervical segment of the internal carotid artery became necessary. Here we report a case of a fenestration of the cervical segment of the internal carotid artery suffering a transitory ischemic attack and local pain in absence of any sign of dissection. Case presentation A 62-year-old Caucasian male patient was admitted to our institution because of an episode of amaurosis fugax, initially accompanied with headache. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intact fenestration of the cervical segment of the internal carotid artery on the symptomatic side. With antiplatelet therapy, all symptoms vanished within 2 months of the initial event. Conclusions Our findings support the interpretation of a fenestration of the cervical segment of the internal carotid artery as a developmental vascular variant, but also suggest a substantial risk for dissection and ischemic stroke. Even in case of an accidental finding, clinicians should be aware of this. At least in this case, antiplatelet therapy seemed beneficial.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Lei Li ◽  
Yan Gao ◽  
Zhenchuan Liu ◽  
Chenglai Dong ◽  
Wenli Wang ◽  

Abstract Background Neointimal hyperplasia induced by interventional surgery can lead to progressive obliteration of the vascular lumen, which has become a major factor affecting prognosis. The rate of re-endothelialization is known to be inversely related to neointima formation. Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a secreted protein with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiaging properties. Recent reports have indicated that GDF11 can improve vascular remodeling by maintaining the differentiated phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells. However, it is not known whether and how GDF11 promotes re-endothelialization in vascular injury. The present study was performed to clarify the influence of GDF11 on re-endothelialization after vascular injury. Methods An adult Sprague–Dawley rat model of common carotid artery balloon dilatation injury was surgically established. A recombinant adenovirus carrying GDF11 was delivered into the common carotid artery to overexpress GDF11. Vascular re-endothelialization and neointima formation were assessed in harvested carotid arteries through histomolecular analysis. CCK-8 analysis, LDH release and Western blotting were performed to investigate the effects of GDF11 on endothelial NLRP3 inflammasome activation and relevant signaling pathways in vitro. Results GDF11 significantly enhanced re-endothelialization and reduced neointima formation in rats with balloon-dilatation injury by suppressing the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Administration of an endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) inhibitor, 4PBA, attenuated endothelial NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by lysophosphatidylcholine. In addition, upregulation of LOX-1 expression involved elevated ER stress and could result in endothelial NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, GDF11 significantly inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated endothelial cell pyroptosis by negatively regulating LOX-1-dependent ER stress. Conclusions We conclude that GDF11 improves re-endothelialization and can attenuate vascular remodeling by reducing endothelial NLRP3 inflammasome activation. These findings shed light on new treatment strategies to promote re-endothelialization based on GDF11 as a future target.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Lei Yang ◽  
Ling Yu ◽  
Wei Qin ◽  
Yue Li ◽  
Shuna Yang ◽  

Background and PurposePrevious studies on the presence of asymmetrical prominent cortical and medullary vessel signs (APCV/APMV) and collateral circulation in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) are rare, and the conclusions are inconsistent. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the presence of APCV/APMV and collateral circulation in patients with ICAO.MethodsPatients with acute ischemic stroke with ICAO were recruited in this study. All 74 patients were divided into two groups depending on the presence of APCV and APMV. The status of the cerebral arterial circle (CAC) was graded as poor or good. The poor CAC was defined as MCA was invisible. Severe stroke was defined as cerebral watershed infarction (CWI) or territorial infarction (TI). Clinical and radiological markers were compared between these two groups. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between the APCV/APMV and clinical and radiological markers.ResultsA total of 74 patients with ICAO were enrolled. Forty-three patients (58.1%) presented with an APCV and APMV was found in 35 (47.2%) patients. Compared with patients with non-APCV, patients with APCV had a more severe stroke (P = 0.038) and had a significantly higher incidence of poor CAC (P = 0.022) than those with APCV. Patients with APMV had a more severe stroke (P = 0.001). Logistic regression showed that poor CAC was independently associated with APCV and severe stroke were independently associated with APMV.ConclusionsOur study demonstrates that poor CAC was independently associated with the presence of the APCV in patients with ICAO. Severe stroke was independently associated with the APMV.

Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 101 (2) ◽  
pp. e28544
Lei Wan ◽  
Yanxiang Song ◽  
Zhengdong Li ◽  
Maowen Wang ◽  
Fengxiang Song ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 532-534
Uddalok Das ◽  
Sahajada Selim ◽  
Ramudar Singh ◽  
Narayan Pandit

Unilateral absence of internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare congenital anomaly. We present the case of a 35-year-old man with episodes of recurrent strokes in the past and now presenting with right-sided upper limb weakness. Radiological diagnostic workup revealed a thin left ICA in the neck with non-visualization beyond petrous bone in the intracranial course. The ipsilateral brain parenchyma is supplied by vessels from the contralateral side of the Circle of Willis. As the patient had no evidence of a cerebrovascular accident on radiological evaluation and no neurological signs and symptoms, he was discharged with anticoagulant medications with the advice of follow-up. This is the first report to describe a case of ICA agenesis with a pattern of collateral circulation that doesn’t fit any of the six types described by Lie.

Cynthia B. Zevallos ◽  
Mudassir Farooqui ◽  
Darko Quispe‐Orozco ◽  
Alan Mendez‐Ruiz ◽  
Andres Dajles ◽  

Background Despite thrombectomy having become the standard of care for large‐vessel occlusion strokes, acute endovascular management in tandem occlusions, especially of the cervical internal carotid artery lesion, remains uncertain. We aimed to compare efficacy and safety of acute carotid artery stenting to balloon angioplasty alone on treating the cervical lesion in tandem occlusions. Similarly, we aimed to explore those outcomes’ associations with technique approaches and use of thrombolysis. Methods and Results We performed a systematic review and meta‐analysis to compare functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale), reperfusion, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and 3‐month mortality. We explored the association of first approach (anterograde/retrograde) and use of thrombolysis with those outcomes as well. Two independent reviewers performed the screening, data extraction, and quality assessment. A random‐effects model was used for analysis. Thirty‐four studies were included in our systematic review and 9 in the meta‐analysis. Acute carotid artery stenting was associated with higher odds of modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 (odds ratio [OR], 1.95 [95% CI, 1.24–3.05]) and successful reperfusion (OR, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.26–2.83]), with no differences in mortality or symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rates. Moreover, a retrograde approach was significantly associated with modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 (OR, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.05–2.83]), and no differences were found on thrombolysis status. Conclusions Carotid artery stenting and a retrograde approach had higher odds of successful reperfusion and good functional outcomes at 3 months than balloon angioplasty and an anterograde approach, respectively, in patients with tandem occlusions. A randomized controlled trial comparing these techniques with structured antithrombotic regimens and safety outcomes will offer definitive guidance in the optimal management of this complex disease.

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