acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Recently Published Documents





Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 426
Giuliana Beneduce ◽  
Antonia De Matteo ◽  
Pio Stellato ◽  
Anna M. Testi ◽  
Nicoletta Bertorello ◽  

Five-year event-free survival in pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) currently exceeds 80–85%. However, 15–20% of patients still experience a relapsed/refractory disease. From 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2020, thirty-nine patients, 0–21 years old with r/r BCP-ALL were treated with blinatumomab with the aim of inducing remission (n = 13) or reducing MRD levels (n = 26) in the frame of different multiagent chemotherapy schedules, in seven AIEOP centers. Patients were treated in compassionate and/or off-label settings and were not enrolled in any controlled clinical trials. Treatment was well tolerated; 22 (56.4%) patients reported adverse events (AE) on a total of 46 events registered, of which 27 (58.7%) were ≤2 grade according to CTCAE. Neurological AEs were 18 (39.1%); only two patients required transient blinatumomab discontinuation. Complete remission (CR) rate was 46% for the 13 patients treated with ≥5% blasts and 81% PCR/FC MRD negativity in the 26 patients with blasts < 5%. Median relapse-free survival was 33.4 months (95% CI; 7.5–59.3); median overall survival was not reached over a mean follow-up of 16 months. In our study, as in other real-life experiences, blinatumomab proved to be effective and well-tolerated, able to induce a high rate of CR and MRD negativity.

Leukemia ◽  
2022 ◽  
Felix Seyfried ◽  
Felix Uli Stirnweiß ◽  
Alexandra Niedermayer ◽  
Stefanie Enzenmüller ◽  
Rebecca Louise Hörl ◽  

AbstractTargeting BCL-2, a key regulator of survival in B-cell malignancies including precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has become a promising treatment strategy. However, given the redundancy of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins (BCL-2, BCL-XL, MCL-1), single targeting may not be sufficient. When analyzing the effects of BH3-mimetics selectively targeting BCL-XL and MCL-1 alone or in combination with the BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax, heterogeneous sensitivity to either of these inhibitors was found in ALL cell lines and in patient-derived xenografts. Interestingly, some venetoclax-resistant leukemias were sensitive to the MCL-1-selective antagonist S63845 and/or BCL-XL-selective A-1331852 suggesting functional mutual substitution. Consequently, co-inhibition of BCL-2 and MCL-1 or BCL-XL resulted in synergistic apoptosis induction. Functional analysis by BH3-profiling and analysis of protein complexes revealed that venetoclax-treated ALL cells are dependent on MCL-1 and BCL-XL, indicating that MCL-1 or BCL-XL provide an Achilles heel in BCL-2-inhibited cells. The effect of combining BCL-2 and MCL-1 inhibition by venetoclax and S63845 was evaluated in vivo and strongly enhanced anti-leukemia activity was found in a pre-clinical patient-derived xenograft model. Our study offers in-depth molecular analysis of mutual substitution of BCL-2 family proteins in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and provides targets for combination treatment in vivo and in ongoing clinical studies.

Haematologica ◽  
2022 ◽  
Marco Cerrano ◽  
Massimiliano Bonifacio ◽  
Matteo Olivi ◽  
Antonio Curti ◽  
Michele Malagola ◽  

Not available.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 382
Felix M. Onyije ◽  
Ann Olsson ◽  
Dan Baaken ◽  
Friederike Erdmann ◽  
Martin Stanulla ◽  

Leukemia is the most common type of cancer among children and adolescents worldwide. The aim of this umbrella review was (1) to provide a synthesis of the environmental risk factors for the onset of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by exposure window, (2) evaluate their strength of evidence and magnitude of risk, and as an example (3) estimate the prevalence in the German population, which determines the relevance at the population level. Relevant systematic reviews and pooled analyses were identified and retrieved through PubMed, Web of Science databases and lists of references. Only two risk factors (low doses of ionizing radiation in early childhood and general pesticide exposure during maternal preconception/pregnancy) were convincingly associated with childhood ALL. Other risk factors including extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-MF), living in proximity to nuclear facilities, petroleum, benzene, solvent, and domestic paint exposure during early childhood, all showed some level of evidence of association. Maternal consumption of coffee (high consumption/>2 cups/day) and cola (high consumption) during pregnancy, paternal smoking during the pregnancy of the index child, maternal intake of fertility treatment, high birth weight (≥4000 g) and caesarean delivery were also found to have some level of evidence of association. Maternal folic acid and vitamins intake, breastfeeding (≥6 months) and day-care attendance, were inversely associated with childhood ALL with some evidence. The results of this umbrella review should be interpreted with caution; as the evidence stems almost exclusively from case-control studies, where selection and recall bias are potential concerns, and whether the empirically observed association reflect causal relationships remains an open question. Hence, improved exposure assessment methods including accurate and reliable measurement, probing questions and better interview techniques are required to establish causative risk factors of childhood leukemia, which is needed for the ultimate goal of primary prevention.

Michaela Kotrova ◽  
Johannes Koopmann ◽  
Heiko Trautmann ◽  
Nael Alakel ◽  
Joachim Beck ◽  

Persistence of minimal residual disease (MRD) after induction/consolidation therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the leading cause of relapse. The GMALL 07/2003 study used MRD detection by RQ-PCR of clonal immune gene rearrangements with 1x10-4 as discriminating cut-off: levels ≥1x10-4 define molecular failure and MRD-negativity with an assay sensitivity of at least 1x10-4 defines complete molecular response. The clinical relevance of MRD results not fitting in these categories is unclear and termed "molecular not evaluable" (MolNE) towards MRD-based treatment decisions. Within the GMALL 07/03 study, 1019 consecutive bone marrow samples after first consolidation were evaluated for MRD. Patients with complete molecular response had significantly better outcome (five-year overall survival, 5y-OS=85±2%, n=603; five-year disease-free survival, 5y-DFS=73±2%, n=599) compared to patients with molecular failure 5y-OS=40±3%, n=238; 5y-DFS=29±3%, n=208), with MolNE patients in-between (5y-OS=66±4%, 5y-DFS=52±4%, n=178). Of MolNE samples re-analyzed using next-generation sequencing (NGS), patients with undetectable NGS-MRD (n=44; 5y-OS=88±5%, 5y-DFS=70±7%) had significantly better outcome than those with positive NGS-MRD (n=42; 5y-OS=37±8%, 5y-DFS=33±8%). MolNE MRD results are not just borderline values with questionable relevance, but form an intermediate risk group, assignment of which can be further improved by NGS.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (6) ◽  
pp. 151-157
T. N. Aleksandrova ◽  
I. I. Mulina ◽  
V. N. Yadrikhinskaya ◽  
A. M. Pryadeznikova ◽  
A. N. Sannikova ◽  

The novel corona virus disease 2019 (covid-19) is currently a global threat. Cancer patients constitute a group that is at high risk of covid-19 infection with a more severe disease course and higher mortality rate. Case description. We report a case of covid-19 occurring concurrently with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (all) in a young male patient. After verification of the morphological and immunophenotypic profiles of leukemia, the patient receivedall treatment (all-2009 protocol) with concurrent administration of antiviral and antibacterial drugs, as well as immunoglobin replacement therapy. Neutropenia caused by cytostatic treatment led to the progression of lung damage and respiratory failure, which required the withdrawal of cytostatic drugs. The patient was transferred to the intensive care department, where dexamethasone therapy as well as antibacterial and antifungal therapy was continued. Since the lung damage reached 75 % and respiratory failure began to increase, non-invasive ventilation of the lungs was started. Clinical and hematological remission with hematologic recovery and subsequent pneumonia regression was achieved. However, long-term persistence of the virus was observed, and therefore the strategy for treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia was revised. Maintenance therapy with mercaptopurine and methotrexate was administered. After elimination of the virus on the 56th day from the initial positive test, therapy according to the all-2009 protocol was continued. Conclusion. The tactics of treating cancer patients with hemoblastosis during a pandemic should be selected individually with an assessment of the potential benefits and risk of life-threatening complications.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document