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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 30-33
Jyoti Adhikari ◽  
Mohan Belbase ◽  
Shikha Rijal

Introduction: Anemia is one of the most prevalent nutritional deficiency problem affecting pregnant women. It is defined by World Health Organization as hemoglobin (Hb) level of less than 11 g/dl. Hemoglobin level of 9.0- 10.9 g/dl is mild, 7.0-8.9 g/dl is moderate and less than 7 g/dl is severe anemia respectively. Maternal anemia in pregnancy is commonly considered as a risk factor for poor pregnancy outcome and can result in complications that threaten the life of both mother and fetus. Aims: To find out neonatal outcome delivered to anemic mothers. Methods: A prospective case control study was carried out among 75 newborns delivered to pregnant women with hemoglobin below 10.9g/dL. Another 75 newborns were taken delivered at the same time, matched age and sex wise as a control group to mothers whose hemoglobin was more than 11g/dl. Results: Out of total 75 cases 35(46.7%) mothers had mild, 32(42.6%) had moderate and 8(10.7%) had severe anemia respectively. Similarly, the risk of having preterm baby among anemia group was 4.42 times higher than that in control group (p 0.033). The risk of having low birth weight in anemia group was 3.9 times higher than that in control group (p 0.04). The mean of head circumference (HC) among the anemia group was 33.9cm +1.40 (Mean+SD) and among the control group was 34.4cm+1.24(Mean+SD) with a mean difference of 0.5cm (p 0.032). The mean of length among anemia group was 45.3cm+1.97 (Mean+ SD) and among the control group was 46.2cm+1.69 (Mean+ SD) with a mean difference of 0.9 cm (p 0.003). Conclusion: Maternal anemia in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of adverse neonatal outcome. Efforts must be made to reduce the prevalence of anemia especially during pregnancy to reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 176
Irina Anatolyevna Andrievskaya ◽  
Irina Valentinovna Zhukovets ◽  
Inna Victorovna Dovzhikova ◽  
Nataliya Alexandrovna Ishutina ◽  
Ksenia Konstantinovna Petrova

The goal of this research was to evaluate seropositivity to HSV-1 among pregnant women and its effect on the course of pregnancy, childbirth and the condition of newborns. Methods: The serological status, socio-demographic characteristics, parity of pregnancy and childbirth and condition of newborns in women seronegative and seropositive to HSV-1 with recurrent infection and its latent course during pregnancy were analyzed. Newborns from these mothers made up the corresponding groups. Results: Low titers of IgG antibodies to HSV-1 in women in the first trimester of pregnancy are associated with threatened miscarriage, anemia in pregnancy and chronic placental insufficiency. High titers of IgG antibodies to HSV-1 in women in the second trimester of pregnancy are associated with late miscarriages and premature births, anemia in pregnancy, chronic placental insufficiency, labor anomalies, early neonatal complications (cerebral ischemia, respiratory distress syndrome) and localized skin rashes. Low titers of IgG antibodies to HSV-1 in women in the third trimester of pregnancy are associated with premature birth, anemia in pregnancy, chronic placental insufficiency, endometritis, complications of the early neonatal period and localized skin rashes. Conclusions: Our research showed that low or high titers of IgG antibodies to HSV-1, determined by the timing of recurrence of infection during pregnancy, are associated with a high incidence of somatic pathology and complications in pregnancy, childbirth and the neonatal period.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 119
Andrea Maugeri ◽  
Martina Barchitta ◽  
Antonella Agodi

Google Trends data are an efficient source for analysing internet search behaviour and providing valuable insights into community dynamics and health-related problems. In this article, we aimed to evaluate if Google Trends data could help monitor the COVID-19 vaccination trend over time and if the introduction of COVID-19 vaccines modified the interest of pregnant women in vaccination. Data related to Google internet searches and the number of vaccine doses administered in Italy were used. We found moderate to strong correlations between search volumes of vaccine-related terms and the number of vaccines administered. In particular, a model based on Google Trends with a 3-week lag showed the best performance in fitting the number of COVID-19 vaccinations over time. We also observed that the introduction of COVID-19 vaccines affected the search interest for the argument “vaccination in pregnancy” both quantitatively and qualitatively. There was a significant increase in the search interest after the launch of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign in Italy. Qualitative analysis suggested that this increase was probably due to concerns about COVID-19 vaccines. Thus, our study suggests the benefits of using Google Trends data to predict the number of COVID-19 vaccine doses administered, and to monitor feelings about vaccination.

2022 ◽  
Augustina Delaney ◽  
Samantha M. Olson ◽  
Nicole M. Roth ◽  
Janet D. Cragan ◽  
Shana Godfred-Cato ◽  

Abstract During the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Zika Virus Response, birth defects surveillance programs adapted to monitor birth defects potentially related to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy. Pregnancy outcomes occurring during January 2016-June 2017 in 22 U.S. states and territories were used to estimate the prevalence of those brain and eye defects potentially related to ZIKV. Jurisdictions were divided into three groups: areas with widespread ZIKV transmission, areas with limited local ZIKV transmission, and areas without local ZIKV transmission. Prevalence estimates for selected brain and eye defects and microcephaly per 10,000 live births were estimated. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Poisson regression for areas with widespread and limited ZIKV transmission compared to areas without local ZIKV transmission. Defects with significantly higher prevalence in areas of widespread transmission were pooled, and PRs were calculated by quarter, comparing subsequent quarters to the first quarter (January – March 2016). Nine defects had significantly higher prevalence in areas of widespread transmission. The highest PRs were seen in intracranial calcifications (PR=12.6, 95% CI [7.4, 21.3]), chorioretinal abnormalities (12.5 [7.1, 22.3]), brainstem abnormalities (9.3, [4.7, 18.4]), and cerebral/cortical atrophy (6.7, [4.2, 10.8]). The PR of the nine pooled defects was significantly higher in three quarters in areas with widespread transmission. The largest difference in prevalence was observed for defects consistently reported in infants with congenital ZIKV infection. Birth defects surveillance programs could consider monitoring a subset of birth defects potentially related to ZIKV in pregnancy.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262436
Amanda C. Zofkie ◽  
W. Holt Garner ◽  
Rachel C. Schell ◽  
Alexandra S. Ragsdale ◽  
Donald D. McIntire ◽  

Background The definition for anemia in pregnancy is outdated, derived from Scandinavian studies in the 1970’s to 1980’s. To identity women at risk of blood transfusion, a common cause of Severe Maternal Morbidity, a standard definition of anemia in pregnancy in a modern, healthy United States cohort is needed. Objective To define anemia in pregnancy in a United States population including a large county vs. private hospital population using uncomplicated patients. Materials and methods Inclusion criteria were healthy women with the first prenatal visit before 20 weeks. Exclusion criteria included preterm birth, preeclampsia, hypertension, diabetes, short interval pregnancy (<18 months), multiple gestation, abruption, and fetal demise. All women had iron fortification (Ferrous sulfate 325 mg daily) recommended. The presentation to care and pre-delivery hematocrits were obtained, and the percentiles determined. A total of 2000 patients were included, 1000 from the public county hospital and 1000 from the private hospital. Each cohort had 250 patients in each 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2018. The cohorts were compared for differences in the fifth percentile for each antepartum epoch. Student’s t-test and chi-squared statistical tests were used for analysis, p-value of ≤0.05 was considered significant. Results In the public and private populations, 777 and 785 women presented in the first trimester while 223 and 215 presented in the second. The women at the private hospital were more likely to be older, Caucasian race, nulliparous, and present earlier to care. The fifth percentile was compared between the women in the private and public hospitals and were clinically indistinguishable. When combining the cohorts, the fifth percentile for hemoglobin/hematocrit was 11 g/dL/32.8% in the first trimester, 10.3 g/dL/30.6% in the second trimester, and 10.0 g/dL/30.2% pre-delivery. Conclusions Fifth percentile determinations were made from a combined cohort of normal, uncomplicated pregnancies to define anemia in pregnancy. Comparison of two different cohorts confirms that the same definition for anemia is appropriate regardless of demographics or patient mix.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Sharifah Fazlinda Syed Nor ◽  
Idayu Badilla Idris ◽  
Zaleha Md Isa

Abstract Background Physical inactivity in pregnancy has been associated with excessive gestational weight gain, hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes mellitus and postpartum depression. Despite these risks, physical inactivity level remains high especially in higher income countries. The prevalence of physical inactivity among women in Malaysia aged ≥16 years was 28.2% in 2019 exceeding men by 6.1%. However, little is known regarding the subpopulation of pregnant women especially in Kuala Lumpur which is the most urbanized and highly populated city in Malaysia. Therefore, the aim of this study is to measure the physical inactivity prevalence among first trimester pregnant women in Kuala Lumpur and to identify its determining factors. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which 339 first trimester pregnant women were sampled from 13 maternal and child health clinics located in all four parliament districts of Kuala Lumpur. Self-administered questionnaires which contained the Malay version of the pregnancy physical activity questionnaire (PPAQ) were used. Descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the physical inactivity prevalence followed by simple and multiple logistic regression to identify the determinants of physical inactivity with significant level of 5%. Results The prevalence of physical inactivity was 38.3%. The highest activity was seen in the household activity domain, despite only 24.8% of the respondents were housewives/unemployed. There was little to no participation observed in the vigorous intensity category. The determinants of physical inactivity were primigravida (aOR 3.54 95% CI 1.40, 8.97), education level (aOR 3.77 95% CI 1.35, 10.52) and body mass index (aOR 0.88 95% CI 0.80, 0.97) which explained 22.6% variation of physical inactivity in the final adjusted model. Conclusion The prevalence of physical inactivity among first trimester pregnant mothers in this study was 38.3%, and the highest activity was seen in the household category. Health education on physical activity in pregnancy should be focused on those who are primigravida and have no tertiary education. The educational content should be updated and tailored to current pandemic situation where self-isolation is the new norm, by advocating for home-based, moderate to vigorous intensity physical activities.

2022 ◽  
Daniel A. Nnate ◽  
Kobi Vannessa Ajayi ◽  
Md Mahbub Hossain ◽  
Paul Guerby

Objective: Studies on psychosocial interventions for perinatal mental health and wellbeing are mostly limited to the postpartum period. However, the physiological changes associated with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy predisposes women to severe psychological distress and adverse birth outcomes. This review investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Methods: Cochrane CENTRAL, Embase, MEDLINE, MIDIRS, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycArticles, and Web of Science were searched up to 22nd August 2021. Effect sizes on relevant health outcomes were pooled in a meta‐analysis using STATA software. Results: Eight randomised trials involving 460 participants met the inclusion criteria. Included studies adopted several interventions ranging from music, exercise, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), spiritual care education and psychoeducation. The pooled effect showed a significant reduction in anxiety (d= −0.35 [−0.58, −0.11], p=0.004) and depression (d= −0.37 [−0.57, −0.17], p=0.0003). Spiritual care education significantly reduced postpartum stress disorder (d= −62.00 [−93.10, −30.90], p= 0.0001). However, CBT showed no effect on gestational stress (d= −2.20 [-4.89, 0.48], p= 0.11). Conclusion: This study provides satisfactory evidence that psychosocial interventions may likely reduce anxiety and depression associated with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. However, the evidence is very uncertain about its effect on neonatal outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Nirma Joy

Calamine lotion is a shake lotion composed of calamine (zinc oxide/carbonate and ferric oxide), zinc oxide, bentonite, glycerine, sodium citrate, and liquified phenol. It is used widely in dermatology as a soothing agent. It is a preferred topical therapeutic agent for children including infants and is considered safe in pregnancy and lactation.

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