Thomas Jefferson
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2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Micheal D. Warren

<p>Presidents come into office wanting to make America a better place, and Stephen Skowronek’s recurring model of presidential authority is perfectly suited when comparing one president to another, across political time. President Ronald Reagan was categorised as a reconstructive president alongside Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, Abraham Lincoln and Franklin D Roosevelt, according to Skowronek’s model; at the end of his first term, President Obama’s has the potential to be remembered as the sixth president of reconstruction. While the nature of reconstruction has changed and has become more superficial with the ageing of the United States political system, Obama’s reconstructive potential is no less potent than that of Jefferson, Jackson and Lincoln.  The passing of Health Care reform is Obama’s biggest achievement of his presidency to date and is one of the biggest domestic reforms undertaken since the 1960s. Looking ahead to Obama’s second term, further progress looks possible to enhance his reconstructive potential. If Obama can secure immigration reform, then he will give 12 million illegal immigrants the chance to come out from the shadows and work toward residency and legally live the American dream.  With the election and re-election of Obama by an emerging majority made up of women, African Americans, Hispanic Americans and young Americans, the Age of Reagan that existed, has now been replaced by a more diverse coalition. If a democrat can win the White House in 2016, it will truly mean that the Age of Obama has begun.  Obama’s most potent legacy will become more evident in the years to come as many Americans will not remember what the unemployment rate was when he assumed office or what it was when he left office. The partisan bickering that dominated for much of Obama’s first term will have faded into distant memory, but what will shine through from the Obama presidency is opportunity. Americans will never forget how Obama changed the limits of possibility for generations to come. Today there are ten year old African-American, Hispanic and Asian-American children all over the United States who believe that, because of the Obama presidency, they too can one day become president. That in itself is hugely reconstructive and by being elected President, Obama has achieved something more potent than any other reconstructive presidents could have ever achieved.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Micheal D. Warren

<p>Presidents come into office wanting to make America a better place, and Stephen Skowronek’s recurring model of presidential authority is perfectly suited when comparing one president to another, across political time. President Ronald Reagan was categorised as a reconstructive president alongside Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, Abraham Lincoln and Franklin D Roosevelt, according to Skowronek’s model; at the end of his first term, President Obama’s has the potential to be remembered as the sixth president of reconstruction. While the nature of reconstruction has changed and has become more superficial with the ageing of the United States political system, Obama’s reconstructive potential is no less potent than that of Jefferson, Jackson and Lincoln.  The passing of Health Care reform is Obama’s biggest achievement of his presidency to date and is one of the biggest domestic reforms undertaken since the 1960s. Looking ahead to Obama’s second term, further progress looks possible to enhance his reconstructive potential. If Obama can secure immigration reform, then he will give 12 million illegal immigrants the chance to come out from the shadows and work toward residency and legally live the American dream.  With the election and re-election of Obama by an emerging majority made up of women, African Americans, Hispanic Americans and young Americans, the Age of Reagan that existed, has now been replaced by a more diverse coalition. If a democrat can win the White House in 2016, it will truly mean that the Age of Obama has begun.  Obama’s most potent legacy will become more evident in the years to come as many Americans will not remember what the unemployment rate was when he assumed office or what it was when he left office. The partisan bickering that dominated for much of Obama’s first term will have faded into distant memory, but what will shine through from the Obama presidency is opportunity. Americans will never forget how Obama changed the limits of possibility for generations to come. Today there are ten year old African-American, Hispanic and Asian-American children all over the United States who believe that, because of the Obama presidency, they too can one day become president. That in itself is hugely reconstructive and by being elected President, Obama has achieved something more potent than any other reconstructive presidents could have ever achieved.</p>


2021 ◽  
Vol 43 (4) ◽  
pp. 28-62
Author(s):  
Margaret M. Bruchac ◽  
Diana E. Marsh

In this “report from the field,” we write from two perspectives, as a curator and as an advisor, on the process of interpreting Native American documents in the 2016 American Philosophical Society Museum exhibition, “Gathering Voices: Thomas Jefferson and Native America.” We share insights into our curatorial and representational goals, and reflect on the challenges of interpreting Indigenous heritage and traditional knowledges in materials that have been captured in colonial collections. We show how archival documents tend to silence as much as showcase ephemeral encounters, and how power in museum environments often remains embedded within the routine structures of colonial settler institutions and practices. We critique our own exhibition by noting how, despite our best efforts, inherent tensions among Indigenous histories, decolonizing ideals, and colonial archives shaped the process and resulted in irreconcilable omissions. Yet, we argue that cross-cultural collaboration is essential when working in colonial archives. Only by inviting Indigenous people into the process can we make progress toward restoring living relationships among past voices and contemporary communities. In concluding, we offer advice on practical approaches to working with Indigenous collaborators and advisors.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 113-116
Author(s):  
Ansari Ebrahim

Education is the backbone of a progressive society as it is clear from the statement of Thomas Jefferson “educate the masses” as he believed that in order to make changes in a society, the whole masses should be educated. The term ‘education’ is a popular and common term used by everybody but understood by very few in its right perspective. In educational text books it is defined as a purposive, conscious or unconscious, psychological, sociological, scientific and philosophical process that brings about development of the individual to fullest extent and also the maximum development of society in such a way that both enjoy happiness and prosperity. Despite the existence of infrastructural facilities, economic status and availability of various educational courses, the attitude towards higher education and learning is not found to be positive among the Indian expat students. The ultimate objective of this study is to find out the factors that influence the attitude of the students towards higher education and recommend sufficient measures to improve it.


2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (28_suppl) ◽  
pp. 272-272
Author(s):  
Steven Manobianco ◽  
Zachary L. Quinn ◽  
Valerie Pracilio Csik ◽  
Adam F Binder ◽  
Nathan Handley

272 Background: Rule OP-35, which characterizes treatment-related complications of patients receiving outpatient chemotherapy that result in a potentially avoidable emergency department (ED) visit or hospitalization, was developed to encourage practices to build treatment models that reduce such events. However, defining visits as potentially avoidable based on symptoms may not capture the complexity of caring for oncology patients. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of OP-35 in identifying preventable ED visits by real world standards at an academic institution. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed reviewing ED visits at the Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center (SKCC) at Thomas Jefferson University for oncology patients from 10/1/2020 to 1/31/2021. Each patient received care at SKCC had received intravenous or oral chemotherapy in the preceding 30 days, and each encounter was classified as potentially avoidable by OP-35 criteria. Two investigators independently conducted chart reviews to determine whether these visits were potentially avoidable, recording whether the patient attempted to contact their care team prior to the ED encounter and assessing if the concern could have been managed in a timely manner in an outpatient setting. The two records were then compared, and the principal investigator served as an arbiter for determining if a visit was potentially avoidable in instances where the investigators disagreed. Results: We reviewed 144 total encounters and excluded events from patients with either acute leukemia or breast cancer on hormone therapy only, leaving 107 encounters for analysis. After evaluating the clinical circumstances, we determined that 29% of these ED encounters were potentially avoidable. Applying New York University Emergency Department Algorithm (NYU-EDA) criteria, 69% of encounters were considered potentially avoidable. Patients called for advice before seeking ED care in 53% of unavoidable encounters compared to 26% of potentially avoidable encounters. An additional 14% of visits deemed unavoidable were from patients sent directly from clinic. For potentially avoidable encounters, 60% of patients were discharged directly from the ED. In comparison, 8% of unavoidable encounters led to discharge from the ED. Pain was the most common reason for encounters and 53% of these visits were considered potentially avoidable. Conclusions: We found that approximately 30% of ED encounters deemed avoidable by OP-35 criteria were considered potentially avoidable following clinician review. In the majority of cases patients were referred to the ED following initial outpatient attempts at management. NYU-EDA criteria for preventability did not correlate with OP-35 nor clinician consensus regarding potentially avoidable encounters. More work remains in refining tools to identify potentially avoidable ED visits for oncology patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuri Matsubara ◽  
Alexander Fossi ◽  
Sabra Townsend ◽  
Wendy Ross

Abstract Background During the COVID-19 pandemic, children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and neurotypical siblings of children with ASD and their parents and caregivers have been required to change their daily schedule. In this study, we focused on siblings of children with ASD to reveal their adjustment to their daily life. In addition, we examined their caregivers’ stress. Methods An online Qualtrics survey was given to caregivers of children with ASD on February, 2021 at Thomas Jefferson University in the United States. First, we assessed the severity of children with ASD. In addition, we examined how their neurotypical siblings adjusted to their daily life using the validated Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Moreover, we analyzed caregivers’ stress and their socioeconomic status. Results Fifteen caregivers responded to the survey. 42% of children with ASD had behavioral issues beforehand, 80% of which showed worse behaviors during this pandemic. Siblings of children with ASD showed higher scores of difficulties in adapting to new routines during COVID-19. Some caregivers lost their jobs and caregivers of those with behavioral issues reported stress levels that were 4.4 points higher on the scale. Conclusions Siblings of children with ASD and their caregivers are facing difficulties in their daily life during this pandemic. Appropriate support systems for children with ASD, their siblings, and their parents and caregivers may help them with their better adjustment. Key messages Siblings of children with ASD show difficulties in adjusting, and their caregivers feel more stress during COVID-19 pandemic.


Author(s):  
Mark Lawrence Schrad

This is the history of temperance and prohibition as you’ve never read it before: redefining temperance as a progressive, global, pro-justice movement that touched virtually every significant world leader from the eighteenth through early twentieth centuries. American prohibition was only part of a global phenomenon, which included pro-temperance leaders like Vladimir Lenin, Leo Tolstoy, Tomáš Masaryk, Kemal Atatürk, Mahatma Gandhi, and anti-colonial activists across Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Temperance wasn’t “American exceptionalism,” but one of the most broad-based and successful transnational social movements of the modern era. Temperance was intrinsically linked to progressivism, social justice, liberal self-determination, labor rights, women’s rights, civil rights and indigenous rights. Prohibitionism united Native American chiefs like Little Turtle and Black Hawk; African-American leaders Frederick Douglass, Ida Wells, and Booker T. Washington; suffragists Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Frances Willard; progressives from William Lloyd Garrison to William Jennings Bryan; writers F. E. W. Harper and Upton Sinclair, and even American presidents from Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln to Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. Progressives rather than puritans, the global temperance movement advocated communal self-protection against the corrupt and predatory “liquor machine” that profited off the misery and addictions of the poor around the world, from the slums of South Asia to the beerhalls of Central Europe to the Native American reservations of the United States.


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