Economic Status
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Lisbeth M. Johansson ◽  
Hans Lingfors ◽  
Marie Golsäter ◽  
Margareta Kristenson ◽  
Eleonor I. Fransson

Abstract Background People with low socio-economic status report lower levels of physical activity (PA). There is insufficient knowledge about the availability of psychological resources for those who are physically active despite having a low socio-economic status. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between PA level and mastery and vitality, respectively, within an adult population with self-reported economic difficulties. Method Data from a cross-sectional, population-based study (n = 817) were used. Linear regression was used to estimate the unstandardised regression coefficient (β) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), describing associations between PA levels (independent variable) and scale scores of psychological resources in terms of mastery and vitality (outcome variables). Three models were constructed: Model I unadjusted; Model II adjusted for sex and age; and Model III adjusted for sex, age, smoking and food quality. Result After adjusting for sex, age, smoking and food quality and using low-level PA as the reference, high-level PA, but not intermediate-level PA, was related to higher scale scores of mastery (β = 0.72 [95% CI 0.08 to 1.37]). For vitality, both high-level PA and intermediate-level PA were related to higher scale scores (β = 9.30 [95% CI 5.20 to 13.40] and β = 6.70 [95% CI 1.40 to 12.00] respectively). Conclusion In an adult population with self-reported economic difficulties, higher levels of physical activity were related to higher mastery and vitality. Our results support that the association between physical activity and psychological resources in terms of mastery and vitality should be considered in the context of targeted health dialogues. Trial registration number Not applicable.

Per Wändell ◽  
Axel C. Carlsson ◽  
Gunnar Ljunggren

Abstract Objective We aimed to study open-angle glaucoma in association with somatic comorbidities in the total population of adults in Region Stockholm. Methods The study population included all living persons aged 19 years and above who resided in Stockholm County, Sweden, on 1 January 2017 (N = 1 703 675). Subjects with specified diseases were identified with data from all registered consultations and hospital stays during 2008–2019. As outcome, the risk of being associated with a diagnosis of open-angle glaucoma was identified during 2012–2018. Analyses were performed by gender, controlling for age and socio-economic status. Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for women and men with open-angle glaucoma, using individuals without this as referents, were calculated. Socio-economic status was assessed based on the neighbourhood the subjects lived in. Results In total, 16,299 cases of open-angle glaucoma were identified during 2012–2018, 9204 women and 7095 men. Higher fully adjusted OR (95% CI) for risk of being associated with open-angle glaucoma was for women and men with diabetes 1.138 (1.074–1.207) and 1.216 (1.148–1.289), cancer 1.175 (1.120–1.233) and 1.106 (1.048–1.166), hypertension 1.372 (1.306–1.440) and 1.243 (1.179–1.311); and for women with thyroid diseases 1.086 (1.030–1.146), chronic lung diseases 1.153 (1.093–1.216), and inflammatory arthropathies 1.132 (1.006–1.275). Higher glaucoma incidence was observed in individuals residing in high socio-economic status neighbourhoods. Conclusion The risk of glaucoma is increased in some somatic diseases, especially in individuals with diabetes, hypertension and cancer; and in higher socio-economic neighbourhoods as compared to lower socio-economic neighbourhoods.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (4) ◽  
pp. 147-156
Anayat Ullah ◽  
Syed Hasnain Ali Abbas ◽  
Faryal Shah ◽  
Muneer Khan Orakzai

Abstract The impact of armed conflict on primary and secondary schooling is very hazardous and apparent. Since, 2001 the conflict has made millions of people displaced in the form of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) mainly from Tribal Areas on western border with Afghanistan to the settled areas within Pakistan. This research addressed the impact of internal conflict on primary and secondary level school children during displacement at Jalozia camp, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa. For that reason, the household survey was conducted at Jalozai IDPs camp. The survey results indicate that conflict induced displacement has negatively impacted the level of schooling both at primary and secondary level. However, the impact is more hazardous for secondary schooling. Due to some socio-economic and cultural constraints, mostly female students were dropout of schools at secondary kevel. In addition, conflict affected the socio-economic status of the marginalized displaced people which either way affected the schooling of displaced children.     Key words:    Conflict; Displacement; Schooling; Socio-Economic Status; Pakistan 

Elmira Nasri Roodsari ◽  
Parian Hoseini

AbstractContact with UGS (urban green spaces) is a critical element for urban quality of life and an essential aspect of environmental justice, so all citizens should be able to access UGS regardless of their social and economic condition. In this regard, several studies have shown a positive correlation between UGS justice with socio-economic status in different contexts. In recent decades, Tehran has also experienced much wider socio-economic inequalities, reflected in its spatial configuration. Therefore, this study explored the possible correlation between the UGS supply and accessibility in the 22 Tehran municipal districts and their socio-economic development level. For this purpose, UGS supply (per capita) and accessibility (areas within 800 m walking distance to UGS) indicators are used to assess the UGS justice in Tehran. The research data are drawn from official spatial and statistical data, analysed using ArcGIS. This quantitative data are converted into map layers to shape a basis for UGS assessment indicators in conjunction with socio-economic status. The findings show an unbalanced distribution of UGS in Tehran. However, the areas with highest socio-economic status are at an optimum level of UGS justice in relation to all 22 districts, but no direct correlation confirms the same results for areas with lower socio-economic status.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Hirono Ishikawa ◽  
Mio Kato ◽  
Takahiro Kiuchi

Abstract Background During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the importance of health literacy (HL) was addressed by public health researchers. We longitudinally examined the changes in general HL and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) between immediately before the COVID-19 outbreak and 1 year later, and how general HL before the outbreak was related to changes in HRQOL in the Japanese general population. Methods Among the Japanese residents aged 20–79 years who participated in our previous study in 2017, 826 were followed-up via self-administered questionnaires in January 2020 and February 2021, for the purposes of this study. The HRQOL was measured using the SF-8, a short version of the SF-36 Health Survey, and general HL was measured using the short form of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HL-SF12) in the 2020 and 2021 surveys. Results The physical and mental dimensions of HRQOL as well as general HL declined significantly from immediately before the COVID-19 outbreak to 1 year later (p = .010, p < .001 and p < .001, respectively). The decline in HRQOL, especially the mental dimension, was more significant among women. A lower economic status was also related to a greater decline in HRQOL (p = .026 for the physical dimension and p = .012 for the mental dimension). Higher general HL before the COVID-19 outbreak was associated with a lesser decline in HRQOL in both the physical and mental dimensions (p = .040 and p < .001, respectively) after controlling for possible confounding variables such as gender and economic status. Conclusions Healthcare support is crucial for vulnerable populations during and after the pandemic. General HL may be important for attenuating the decline in HRQOL, by enabling effective use of health information and adaptive behaviors toward health threats. Further studies are needed to better understand the association between HL and HRQOL.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Qianhui Hua ◽  
Hong Xu ◽  
Xinyi Chen ◽  
Junhang Pan ◽  
Ying Peng ◽  

To evaluate China's current rifampin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) screening strategy from stakeholders' perspectives, the perceptions, attitudes, and interests of 245 stakeholders from three eastern, central, and western China provinces on RR-TB screening strategies, were investigated through stakeholder survey and interview. The attitudes toward three RR-TB screening strategies were statistically different: inclination to choose who to screen (Z = 98.477; P &lt; 0.001), funding for rapid diagnostic technology screening either by reimbursed health insurance or directly subsidized financial assistance (Z = 4.142, P &lt; 0.001), and respondents' attitude during RR-TB screening implementation levels (Z = 2.380, P = 0.017). In conclusion, RR-TB screening scope could be expanded by applying rapid diagnostic technologies. Provinces with different economic status could adjust their screening policies accordingly.

Rubina Sulaiman ◽  
Syama Shaji ◽  
Varsha Vijayakumar Sheela ◽  
Ameena Subair Raheela

Background: The uncontrolled, inappropriate or excessive use of the mobile phone can give rise to social, behavioural and affective problems. Mobile phone addiction has emerged as a challenging public health issue. The aim of the study was to find out the proportion and associated factors of mobile phone addiction among children aged 5-12 years.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 222 children in the age group of 5-12 years. Data collection was done using a semi-structured questionnaire and outcome variable measured using the diagnostic criteria developed by Lin et al. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression was done to find out the association between exposure and outcome variables.Results: 42.3% of children aged 5-12 years had mobile phone addiction. Factors like higher socio-economic status of the family, educated father, children with normal weight for age, presence of visual problems, headache, poor concentration and disturbed sleep were found to have statistically significant association with the mobile phone addiction. The predictor variables found on regression were higher socio-economic status, children with normal weight for age, disturbed sleep and poor concentration.Conclusions: This study found nearly half of the children belonging to 5-12 years was addicted to mobile phones which is higher than expected and is a serious matter for the growing children. The risk factors found in the study are modifiable to an extent and hence regional and national level strategies has to be implemented in accordance with the available studies to tackle this public health problem. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Alessandra Giannini ◽  
Elisabeth Kago Ilboudo Nébié ◽  
Diaba Ba ◽  
Ousmane Ndiaye

We integrate long-term observations of rainfall and repeat, large-scale, nationwide household surveys of nutrition and socio-economic status to assess the vulnerability of food security to climate in Senegal. We use a mixed methods approach and a vulnerability framework to explain how it is that food security is on average lower, and more variable year-to-year, in the climatologically wetter south and east of the country than in the drier western center and north. We find that it is sensitivity to climate that explains the spatial variation in food security, while exposure explains its temporal variation, but only where sensitivity is high. While households in the western center and north, geographically closer to the political and economic center of action, are less dependent on livelihoods based on climate-sensitive activities, notably agriculture, these activities still dominate in the more remote, landlocked and at times conflict-ridden south and east, where sensitivity to the vagaries of rainfall persists. As they work to strengthen the resilience of climate-sensitive activities, food security and climate-risk management projects and policies should move beyond simplistic, deterministic assumptions about how climate affects food security outcomes, and invest in livelihood diversification to increase rural income and reduce vulnerability of food security to climate.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (S1) ◽  
pp. 1554-1568
Ranjeeta Phukan

  Women status and women empowerment these two words very interconnected to each other. Women empowerment can determine by in terms of socio- economic status which influence by an indicators like income, poverty, education, skill, employment opportunities and better health etc. In India, Assam is one of the better positions for women other than North-East state. Because of government always taking initiative and also implementing different types of schemes especially for women. In this paper presenting about the Orunodoi Scheme and their impact factor with implementation for family, women and Assam which is first introduced in October 2020 and but process starting from December 2020. So, only ten-month study highlights with the five objectives by the name of “Empowering family with empowering women in Empowering Assam”.

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 2146
Claudio Brasso ◽  
Benedetta Giordano ◽  
Cristina Badino ◽  
Silvio Bellino ◽  
Paola Bozzatello ◽  

Primary psychosis, which includes schizophrenia and other psychoses not caused by other psychic or physical conditions, has a strong impact worldwide in terms of disability, suffering and costs. Consequently, improvement of strategies to reduce the incidence and to improve the prognosis of this disorder is a current need. The purpose of this work is to review the current scientific literature on the main risk and protective factors of primary psychosis and to examine the main models of prevention, especially those related to the early detection of the onset. The conditions more strongly associated with primary psychosis are socio-demographic and economic factors such as male gender, birth in winter, ethnic minority, immigrant status, and difficult socio-economic conditions while the best-established preventive factors are elevated socio-economic status and an economic well-being. Risk and protective factors may be the targets for primordial, primary, and secondary preventive strategies. Acting on modifiable factors may reduce the incidence of the disorder or postpone its onset, while an early detection of the new cases enables a prompt treatment and a consequential better prognosis. According to this evidence, the study of the determinants of primary psychosis has a pivotal role in designing and promoting preventive policies aimed at reducing the burden of disability and suffering of the disorder.

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