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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Rebecca Langford ◽  
Alisha Davies ◽  
Laura Howe ◽  
Christie Cabral

Abstract Background Educational attainment is a key social determinant of health. Health and education are linked by multiple pathways, many of which are not well understood. One such pathway is the association between being above a healthy weight and lower academic achievement. While various explanations have been put forward to explain this relationship, evidence for causal pathways is sparse and unclear. This study addresses that evidence gap. Methods We interviewed 19 adults (late 20s; 14 female, 5 male) and one young person (14 years, male) from the UK in 2019/2020. Participants were recruited from the ALSPAC 1990s birth cohort, sampled to ensure diversity in socio-economic status and educational attainment, and a community-based weight management group for young people. Interviews focused on experiences of being above a healthy weight during secondary school and how this may have affected their learning and achievement. Interviews were face-to-face, digitally recorded, and transcribed verbatim. We analysed the data thematically. Results We identified key pathways through which higher body weight may negatively impact educational performance and showed how these are linked within a novel theoretical model. Because larger body size is highly stigmatised, participants engaged in different strategies to minimise their exposure to negative attention. Participants sought to increase their social acceptance or become less socially visible (or a combination of both). A minority navigated this successfully; they often had many friends (or the ‘right’ friends), experienced little or no bullying at school and weight appeared to have little effect on their achievement at school. For most however, the behaviours resulting from these strategies (e.g. disruptive behaviour, truanting, not working hard) or the physical, social or mental impacts of their school experiences (e.g. hungry, tired, self-conscious, depressed) made it difficult to concentrate and/or participate in class, which in turn affected how teachers viewed them. Conclusions Action to combat weight stigma, both within schools and in wider society, is urgently required to help address these educational disparities that in turn can impact health in later life.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 106-116
Rakesh Kumar Chanania ◽  
Lakshay Goyal ◽  
Sanjeev Gupta ◽  
Gagandeep Chanania ◽  
Sahil Heer

Background: A prospective study was conducted on 100 patients of perforation peritonitis: To find out the incidence of gastro intestinal perforation in various age groups, sex, riral or urban, socio economic status, To find out the various causes and sites of gastra intestinal perforartions, To determine various types of procedures being done to treat gastro intestinal perforations.Methods:The study population consisted of 100 patients of perforation peritonitis admitted at surgical wards of Rajindra Hospital, Patiala. Patients underwent necessary investigations such as Blood counts, biochemical analysis and urine analysis. X-ray Abdomen and chest / USG Abdomen/Pelvis CT-Abdomen (as and when required). All diagnosed patients were subjected to surgery. In all cases, operative findings and postoperative course were followed up for three months. Final outcome was evaluated on the basis of clinical, operative and radiological findings. In pre-pyloric and duodenal perforation, GRAHAM’S PATCH REPAIR carried out. In Ileal and Jejunal perforations, primary closure or exteriorization done depending upon the condition of the gut and duration of the symptoms. The patient outcome was assessed by duration of hospital stay, wound infection, wound dehiscence, leakage/entero-cutaneous fistula, intra-abdominal collection/abscess, ileostomy related complications and reoperation. Wound infection was graded as per SSI grading.Results:Most common age group for perforation was 21-40 years (50%) followed by 41-60 (33%) years in present study. Mean age of the patients is 37.91 + 13.15 years with male predominance (78%) in our study. 4% of the patients were of upper socio-economic status while 32% of the patients were of middle and 64% of the patients were of lower socio-economic status.Abdominal pain was seen in 100% of the patients while abdominal distension was present in 69% of the patients. Nausea/Vomiting was seen in 61% of the patients while Fever and Constipation was seen in 53% and 86% of the patients respectively. Diarrhoea was seen in 3% of the patients. Tenderness, guarding & rigidity, distension, obliteration of liver dullness and evidence of free fluid were present in 100% of the patients. Bowel sounds were not detected in all the patients. Most common perforations were Duodena(37%), Ileal (25%), Gastric (25%) followed by Appendicular (9%), Jejunal (4%) and Colonic perforation (2%). The most common etiology of gastrointestinal perforations was Peptic ulcer followed by Typhoid, Appendicitis, Tuberculosis, Trauma, Malignancy and non-specific infection.In Gastric perforations, Peptic ulcer was the most common cause of perforation followed by Trauma. In Ileal perforations, Typhoid was the most common cause of perforation followed by Tuberculosis and non-specific infection. In Appendicular perforations, most common cause was Appendicitis. In Jejunal perforations, most common cause was Trauma. In Colonic perforations, most common cause was Malignancy.Conclusions:The incidence of gastrointestinal perforations was common in 21-40 years age group followed by 41-60 years age group with male preponderance in our study. The most common site of perforations was Gastro-duodenal followed by Ileal perforations and the most common cause for these perforations was peptic ulcer followed by typhoid. The most common procedure done to treat gastrointestinal perforations was primary closure, resection and anastomosis, appendectomy and stoma formation. However, small sample size and short follow up period were the limitations of the present study.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Kausik Chaudhuri ◽  
Anindita Chakrabarti ◽  
Joht Singh Chandan ◽  
Siddhartha Bandyopadhyay

Abstract Background The approved COVID-19 vaccines have shown great promise in reducing disease transmission and severity of outcomes. However, the success of the COVID-19 vaccine rollout is dependent on public acceptance and willingness to be vaccinated. In this study, we aim to examine how the attitude towards public sector officials and the government impact vaccine willingness. The secondary aim is to understand the impact of ethnicity on vaccine-willingness after we explicitly account for trust in public institutions. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from a UK population based longitudinal household survey (Understanding Society COVID-19 study, Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study) between April 2020-January 2021. Data from 22,421 participants in Waves 6 and 7 of the study were included after excluding missing data. Demographic details in addition to previous survey responses relating to public sector/governmental trust were included as covariates in the main analysis. A logit model was produced to describe the association between public sector/governmental mistrust and the willingness for vaccination with interaction terms included to account for ethnicity/socio-economic status. Results In support of existing literature, we identified those from BAME groups were more likely to be unwilling to take the COVID-19 vaccine. We found that positive opinions towards public sector officials (OR 2.680: 95% CI 1.888 – 3.805) and the UK government (OR 3.400; 95% CI 2.454—4.712) led to substantive increase in vaccine willingness. Most notably we identified this effect to vary across ethnicity and socio-economic status with those from South Asian background (OR 4.513; 95% CI 1.012—20.123) and possessing a negative attitude towards public officials and the government being the most unwilling to be vaccinated. Conclusions These findings suggests that trust in public sector officials play a key factor in the low vaccination rates particularly seen in at-risk groups. Given the additional morbidity/mortality risk posed by COVID-19 to those from lower socio-economic or ethnic minority backgrounds, there needs to be urgent public health action to review how to tailor health promotion advice given to these groups and examine methods to improve trust in public sector officials and the government.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 122
Rupinder Chandel ◽  
Karun Sharma

Crop characteristics of cotton are crucial to identify the important crop attributes like plant height, canopy width, sympods and monopods distribution, row spacing which affects the performance of mechanical harvesters. The activity and effectiveness of most harvest aids, including desiccants is reduced by low temperature conditions. Trash content was observed to be lesser in cotton harvested by cotton picker than cotton harvested by cotton stripper. It was found that a maximum cotton yield of 1000 kg acre-1 was obtained for a cotton plant population ranging between 45,000 and 90,000 plants acre-1. Likewise, a minimum of 700 to 740 kg acre-1 was observed for a cotton plant population of 33,000 plants acre-1. In higher yielding cotton, cotton pickers recorded higher picking rate than cotton strippers. Picking/harvesting efficiency of cotton stripper with both finger and brush type mechanism was higher than the spindle type cotton picker. Picking efficiency of pneumatic picker was higher than the other types of picking mechanisms, but with lesser rate of picking capacity. Gin turnout of cotton was higher with cotton picker when compared with cotton stripper due to lesser trash content in picker harvested cotton. The horsepower requirement of cotton stripper ranged from ½ to ¼ horsepower and cost is about two-thirds of the price as compared with cotton picker. The scheduling and monitoring of various activities involved in cotton picking by using a suitable software model can increase the benefits of both growers and harvesting companies. The reduction in uniformity with roller gin-type lint cleaners ranged between 0.2 to 0.8%, which was lesser as compared with saw-type lint cleaners. Introducing mechanical harvesting has always been a decades-long process. In Turkey, it took 20 years and in Greece, this process took place very gradually over a 15-year period. Top cotton producing countries like India, Pakistan, China, Uzbekistan and other developing countries like Iran Paraguay are still not using machine harvesting. The introduction of mechanical cotton picker or stripper can help improve quality and quantity of cotton picking thereby giving more benefit to growers in developing countries and improving their socio-economic status. The most controversial issue raised by the introduction of the mechanical cotton harvester is great migration as the machines eliminated jobs and forced poor families to leave their homes and farms in search for urban jobs. Therefore Government policies towards cotton harvesting mechanization must include the alternative jobs, packages for dependent manual cotton pickers and their families.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (s1) ◽  
Yucheng Wang ◽  
Thomas C. Tsai ◽  
Dustin Duncan ◽  
John Ji

With people restricted to their residences, neighbourhood characteristics may affect behaviour and risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. We aimed to analyse whether neighbourhoods with higher walkability, public transit, biking services and higher socio-economic status were associated with lower COVID-19 infection during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in Massachusetts. We used Walk Score®, Bike Score®, and Transit Score® indices to assess the walkability and transportation of 72 cities in Massachusetts, USA based on availability of data and collected the total COVID-19 case numbers of each city up to 10 April 2021. We used univariate and multivariate linear models to analyse the effects of these scores on COVID-19 cases per 100,000 in each city, adjusting for demographic covariates and all covariates, respectively. In the 72 cities studied, the average Walk Score, Transit Score and Bike Score was 48.7, 36.5 and 44.1, respectively, with a total of 426,182 COVID-19 cases. Higher Walk Score, Transit Score, and Bike Score rankings were negatively associated with COVID-19 cases per 100,000 persons (<0.05). Cities with a higher proportion of Hispanic population and a lower median household income were associated with more COVID-19 cases per 100,000 (P<0.05). Higher Walk Score, Transit Score and Bike Score were shown to be protective against COVID-19 transmission, while socio-demographic factors were associated with COVID-19 infection. Understanding the complex relationship of how the structure of the urban environment may constrain commuting patterns for residents and essential workers during COVID-19 would offer potential insights on future pandemic preparedness and response.

Elisabet Sánchez-Rodríguez ◽  
Alexandra Ferreira-Valente ◽  
Filipa Pimenta ◽  
Antonella Ciaramella ◽  
Jordi Miró

Research has shown that the confinement measures implemented to curb the spread of COVID-19 can have negative effects on people’s lives at multiple levels. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to better understand the mental, physical, and socio-economic status of adults living in Spain during the late stages of the state of emergency caused by COVID-19. Five hundred and forty-four individuals responded to an online survey between 3 June and 30 July 2020. They were asked to report data about their mental and physical health, financial situation, and satisfaction with the information received about the pandemic. Means, percentages, t-test, ANOVAs, and logistic regressions were computed. A third of the participants reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress, and worries about their health and the future. Participants also described mild levels of fatigue and pain during lockdown (66%), and a reduction in household income (39%). Respondents that were female, younger, single, and with lower levels of education reported experiencing a greater impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The data showed that the negative effects of lockdown were present in the late stages of the state of emergency. The findings can be used to contribute to the development of programs to prevent or mitigate the negative impact of confinement measures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0010000
Priyanka Rai ◽  
Dhiraj Saha

Introduction Lymphatic filariasis causes long term morbidity and hampers the socio-economic status. Apart from the available treatments and medication, control of vector population Culex quinquefasciatus Say through the use of chemical insecticides is a widely applied strategy. However, the unrestrained application of these insecticides over many decades has led to resistance development in the vectors. Methods In order to determine the insecticide susceptibility/resistance status of Cx. quinquefasciatus from two filariasis endemic districts of West Bengal, India, wild mosquito populations were collected and assayed against six different insecticides and presence of L1014F; L1014S kdr mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene was also screened along with the use of synergists to evaluate the role of major detoxifying enzymes in resistance development. Results The collected mosquito populations showed severe resistance to insecticides and the two synergists used–PBO (piperonyl butoxide) and TPP (triphenyl phosphate), were unable to restore the susceptibility status of the vector thereupon pointing towards a minor role of metabolic enzymes. kdr mutations were present in the studied populations in varying percent with higher L1014F frequency indicating its association with the observed resistance to pyrethroids and DDT. This study reports L1014S mutation in Cx. quinquefasciatus for the first time.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Fiona C. Ingleby ◽  
Laura M. Woods ◽  
Iain M. Atherton ◽  
Matthew Baker ◽  
Lucy Elliss-Brookes ◽  

Abstract Background People living in more deprived areas of high-income countries have lower cancer survival than those in less deprived areas. However, associations between individual-level socio-economic circumstances and cancer survival are relatively poorly understood. Moreover, few studies have addressed contextual effects, where associations between individual-level socio-economic status and cancer survival vary depending on area-based deprivation. Methods Using 9276 individual-level observations from a longitudinal study in England and Wales, we examined the association with cancer survival of area-level deprivation and individual-level occupation, education, and income, for colorectal, prostate and breast cancer patients aged 20–99 at diagnosis. With flexible parametric excess hazard models, we estimated excess mortality across individual-level and area-level socio-economic variables and investigated contextual effects. Results For colorectal cancers, we found evidence of an association between education and cancer survival in men with Excess Hazard Ratio (EHR) = 0.80, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.60;1.08 comparing “degree-level qualification and higher” to “no qualification” and EHR = 0.74 [0.56;0.97] comparing “apprenticeships and vocational qualification” to “no qualification”, adjusted on occupation and income; and between occupation and cancer survival for women with EHR = 0.77 [0.54;1.10] comparing “managerial/professional occupations” to “manual/technical,” and EHR = 0.81 [0.63;1.06] comparing “intermediate” to “manual/technical”, adjusted on education and income. For breast cancer in women, we found evidence of an association with income (EHR = 0.52 [0.29;0.95] for the highest income quintile compared to the lowest, adjusted on education and occupation), while for prostate cancer, all three individual-level socio-economic variables were associated to some extent with cancer survival. We found contextual effects of area-level deprivation on survival inequalities between occupation types for breast and prostate cancers, suggesting wider individual-level inequalities in more deprived areas compared to least deprived areas. Individual-level income inequalities for breast cancer were more evident than an area-level differential, suggesting that area-level deprivation might not be the most effective measure of inequality for this cancer. For colorectal cancer in both sexes, we found evidence suggesting area- and individual-level inequalities, but no evidence of contextual effects. Conclusions Findings highlight that both individual and contextual effects contribute to inequalities in cancer outcomes. These insights provide potential avenues for more effective policy and practice.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 398
Daniel Redondo-Sánchez ◽  
Dafina Petrova ◽  
Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco ◽  
Pablo Fernández-Navarro ◽  
José Juan Jiménez-Moleón ◽  

In the past decade, evidence has accumulated about socio-economic inequalities in very diverse lung cancer outcomes. To better understand the global effects of socio-economic factors in lung cancer, we conducted an overview of systematic reviews. Four databases were searched for systematic reviews reporting on the relationship between measures of socio-economic status (SES) (individual or area-based) and diverse lung cancer outcomes, including epidemiological indicators and diagnosis- and treatment-related variables. AMSTAR-2 was used to assess the quality of the selected systematic reviews. Eight systematic reviews based on 220 original studies and 8 different indicators were identified. Compared to people with a high SES, people with a lower SES appear to be more likely to develop and die from lung cancer. People with lower SES also have lower cancer survival, most likely due to the lower likelihood of receiving both traditional and next-generation treatments, higher rates of comorbidities, and the higher likelihood of being admitted as emergency. People with a lower SES are generally not diagnosed at later stages, but this may change after broader implementation of lung cancer screening, as early evidence suggests that there may be socio-economic inequalities in its use.

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