south asia
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2022 ◽  
Vol 32 ◽  
pp. 100577
Sam Coggins ◽  
Mariette McCampbell ◽  
Akriti Sharma ◽  
Rama Sharma ◽  
Stephan M. Haefele ◽  

2022 ◽  
Tahera Aftab

Iqbal Thonse Hawaldar ◽  
Mithun S. Ullal ◽  
Adel Sarea ◽  
Rajesha T. Mathukutti ◽  
Nympha Joseph

South Asia has seen a digital revolution in recent years. The number of persons who use the internet has risen drastically. They use it for shopping, social media and online sales. However, there exists a literature gap as far as the effect of outbound digital marketing in B2B markets is concerned. The research builds a model based on brand and consumer interactions in Indian B2B markets using a vector autoregressive model to systemically analyze the cost and outcome of digital marketing efforts by the start-ups operating in South Asia. The multivariate time series analyzed in identifying simultaneous and consistent impacts by the start-ups. We use Vector autoregressive model as it allows us to analyse the relationship among the factors as it changes over time. The research finds evidence for the conceptual framework in South Asian markets. The results prove that sales are greatly influenced by digital media, and outbound marketing efforts, predominantly word of mouth, has a huge impact in building a brand image as it spread over in the social media platforms. It is observed that the digital marketing strategies and consumer interaction are the same across South Asia, but its effect varies from country to country within South Asia thus suggesting a need of developing a new strategy in digital marketing for B2B markets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Sahrai Saeed ◽  
Ronak Rajani

doi: How to cite this:Saeed S, Rajani R. The association of pre-existing comorbid conditions with COVID-19 severity and post-COVID complications; insights from South Asia. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):439-441. doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262611
Zhihui Li ◽  
Jia Wu ◽  
Xiaolin Cui ◽  
Zhaojuan Mi ◽  
Lu Peng

Economic vulnerability is an important indicator to measure regional coordination, health and stability. Despite the importance of vulnerabilities, this is the first study that presents 26 indicators selected from the dimensions of the domestic economic system, external economic system and financial system in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) countries. A quantitative analysis is conducted to analyze the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity of vulnerability of the economic subsystems and the comprehensive economic system of the BRI countries and the main influencing factors of the comprehensive economic system vulnerability (CESV) are identified based on obstacle degree model. The results show that the CESV of the East Asia, South Asia and ASEAN countries are lower than that of the Middle Eastern Europe, Central Asia and West Asia countries. The CESV of the BRI countries are generally in the middle level and the average vulnerability index of highly vulnerable countries is twice as much as that of lowly vulnerable countries. In addition, in terms of the vulnerability of the three subsystems, the spatial distribution of vulnerability of the domestic economic system (DESV) and financial system (FSV) is basically consistent with the spatial distribution pattern of CESV, both of which are low in East Asia and South Asia and high in West Asia and Central Asia. While, the vulnerability of external economic system (EESV) shows a different spatial pattern, with vulnerability of West Asia, Central Asia and ASEAN higher than that of East Asia and South Asia. The main obstacle factors influencing the CESV of BRI countries include GDP growth rate, saving ratio, ratio of bank capital to assets, service industry level, industrialization level and loan rate. Therefore, the key way to maintain the stability and mitigate the vulnerability of the economic system of BRI countries is to focus on the macroeconomic development and operation, stimulate the economy and market vitality, promote the development of industries, especially the service and secondary industries, and optimize the economic structure, banking system and financial system.

2022 ◽  
pp. 223386592110729
Attasit Pankaew ◽  
Suppawit Kaewkhunok

China's rising role in South Asia has contributed significantly to the changing geopolitics and geo-economics of the region. Nepal is one of the countries where relations with China have dramatically changed from 2015 till pre-pandemic. This study focuses on analyzing Nepal's foreign policy shifts towards neighboring China and India through a framework of neoclassical realism. It argues that Nepal's foreign policy against neighboring countries has changed since the India-Nepal conflict in 2015, where China has become a key option within Nepal's new foreign policy context. Changes in China's foreign policy and the victory of the Nepal Communist Party are among the key factors in enhancing relations between the two countries. However, it doesn't mean that Nepal took side with China and abandoned India. The article suggests that China's rise has a positive effect on Nepal as an option to balancing intra-regional power and opportunities for infrastructure development within the country.

Sajeev Philip ◽  
Matthew S. Johnson ◽  
David F. Baker ◽  
Sourish Basu ◽  
Yogesh K. Tiwari ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
Kirsti V. Hjerkind ◽  
Anna L. V. Johansson ◽  
Cassia B. Trewin ◽  
Hege G. Russnes ◽  
Giske Ursin

Abstract Background Breast cancer incidence differs between non-immigrants and immigrants from low- and middle-income countries. This study investigates whether immigrants also have different subtype-specific incidences. Methods We used national health registries in Norway and calculated subtype-specific incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for invasive breast cancer among women aged 20–75 and 20–49 years between 2005 and 2015. Immigrant groups were classified by country of birth broadly defined based on WHO regional groupings. Subtype was defined using estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status as luminal A-like (ER+ PR+ HER2-), luminal B-like/HER2- (ER+ PR- HER2-), luminal B-like/HER2+ (ER+ PR any HER2+), HER2+ (ER-PR-HER2+) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (ER-PR-HER2-). Results Compared to non-immigrants, incidence of the luminal A-like subtype was lower in immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa (IRR 0.43 95% CI 0.28–0.66), South East Asia (IRR 0.63 95% CI 0.51–0.79), South Asia (IRR 0.67 95% CI 0.52–0.86) and Eastern Europe (IRR 0.86 95% CI 0.76–0.99). Immigrants from South Asia had higher rates of HER2 + tumors (IRR 2.02 95% CI 1.26–3.23). The rates of TNBC tended to be similar regardless of region of birth, except that women from South East Asia had an IRR of 0.54 (95% CI 0.32–0.91). Conclusions Women from Eastern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia had different subtype-specific incidences compared to women from high-income countries (including non-immigrants). These differences in tumor characteristics between immigrant groups should be taken into consideration when planning preventive or screening strategies.

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