prevalence of obesity
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Author(s):  
Magdalena Potempa-Jeziorowska ◽  
Paweł Jonczyk ◽  
Elżbieta Świętochowska ◽  
Marek Kucharzewski

A high prevalence of obesity among children is influenced by serious implications. Obesity mainly results from behavioral factors, such as improper dietary habits. This study aims to evaluate the nutritional status and dietary habits of children aged 6–10 (n = 908) attending primary schools in Poland, Europe. The research tool was a questionnaire that was completed by one of the children’s parents. A statistical analysis was made using statistical software. The value of p = 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 74.7% of children surveyed have a normal body mass. As many as 91.7% and 76.6% of children, respectively, eat a first and second breakfast daily. Nearly half of parents (48.9%) state that their child consumes milk or other dairy products daily. A total of 74.3% of children drink water daily. A total of 27.6% eats fish less frequently than once a week. A total of 7.6% of children eat fish several times a week. As many as 20.6% of the respondents state that their child eats brown bread several times a week, whereas 19.9% state that their child never eats brown bread. A total of 55.1% of children eat fruits and/or vegetables daily. A total of 14.1% of children surveyed consume sweets daily. The study revealed a positive correlation between BMI and the frequency of mineral water consumption (p = 0.013) in 9 y.o. girls. It was also revealed that the number of consumed fruit/vegetables increases with the BMI value among 10 y.o. boys (p = 0.044). Conclusions: The dietary habits of the investigated children are still improper. There is a great need for education on this issue, but family involvement is also required.


Author(s):  
Fabrizio Ferretti ◽  
Michele Mariani ◽  
Elena Sarti

The impact of soft drinks on obesity has been widely investigated during the last decades. Conversely, the role of obesity as a factor influencing the demand for soft drinks remains largely unexplored. However, understanding potential changes in the demand for soft drinks, as a result of changes in the spread of obesity, may be useful to better design a comprehensive strategy to curb soft drink consumption. In this paper, we aim to answer the following research question: Does the prevalence of obesity affect the demand for soft drinks? For this purpose, we collected data in a sample of 97 countries worldwide for the period 2005–2019. To deal with problems of reverse causality, an instrumental variable approach and a two-stage least squares method were used to estimate the impact of the age-standardized obesity rate on the market demand for soft drinks. After controlling for several demographic and socio-economic confounding factors, we found that a one percent increase in the prevalence of obesity increases the consumption of soft drinks and carbonated soft drinks by about 2.37 and 1.11 L per person/year, respectively. Our findings corroborate the idea that the development of an obesogenic food environment is a self-sustaining process, in which obesity and unhealthy lifestyles reinforce each other, and further support the need for an integrated approach to curb soft drink consumption by combining sugar taxes with bans, regulations, and nutrition education programs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 850
Author(s):  
Sungchul Lee ◽  
Eunmin Hwang ◽  
Yanghee Kim ◽  
Fatih Demir ◽  
Hyunhwa Lee ◽  
...  

With the prevalence of obesity in adolescents, and its long-term influence on their overall health, there is a large body of research exploring better ways to reduce the rate of obesity. A traditional way of maintaining an adequate body mass index (BMI), calculated by measuring the weight and height of an individual, is no longer enough, and we are in need of a better health care tool. Therefore, the current research proposes an easier method that offers instant and real-time feedback to the users from the data collected from the motion sensors of a smartphone. The study utilized the mHealth application to identify participants presenting the walking movements of the high BMI group. Using the feedforward deep learning models and convolutional neural network models, the study was able to distinguish the walking movements between nonobese and obese groups, at a rate of 90.5%. The research highlights the potential use of smartphones and suggests the mHealth application as a way to monitor individual health.


Development ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Naoki Takada ◽  
Masaki Takasugi ◽  
Yoshiki Nonaka ◽  
Tomonori Kamiya ◽  
Kazuaki Takemura ◽  
...  

Worldwide prevalence of obesity is associated with the increase of lifestyle-related diseases. The accumulation of intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) is considered a major problem whereby obesity leads to sarcopenia and metabolic disorders and thus is a promising target for treating these pathological conditions. However, whereas obesity-associated IMAT is suggested to originate from PDGFRα+ mesenchymal progenitors, processes underlying their adipogenesis remain largely unexplored. Here, we comprehensively investigated intra- and extracellular changes associated with these processes using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) and mass spectrometry. Our scRNA-Seq analysis identified a small PDGFRα+ cell population in obese mice directed strongly toward adipogenesis. Proteomic analysis showed that the appearance of this cell population is accompanied by an increase in galectin-3 in interstitial environments, which was found to activate adipogenic PPARγ signals in PDGFRα+ cells. Moreover, IMAT formation during muscle regeneration was significantly suppressed in galectin-3 KO mice. Our findings, together with these multi-omics datasets, could unravel microenvironmental networks during muscle regeneration highlighting possible therapeutic targets against IMAT formation in obesity.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 818
Author(s):  
Merel van Nuland ◽  
Tessa F. Ververs ◽  
Marnix G. E. H. Lam

The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in the Western population. Obesity is known to influence not only the proportion of adipose tissue but also physiological processes that could alter drug pharmacokinetics. Yet, there are no specific dosing recommendations for radiopharmaceuticals in this patient population. This could potentially lead to underdosing and thus suboptimal treatment in obese patients, while it could also lead to drug toxicity due to high levels of radioactivity. In this review, relevant literature is summarized on radiopharmaceutical dosing and pharmacokinetic properties, and we aimed to translate these data into practical guidelines for dosing of radiopharmaceuticals in obese patients. For radium-223, dosing in obese patients is well established. Furthermore, for samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylene (EDTMP), dose-escalation studies show that the maximum tolerated dose will probably not be reached in obese patients when dosing on MBq/kg. On the other hand, there is insufficient evidence to support dose recommendations in obese patients for rhenium-168-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP), sodium iodide-131, iodide 131-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), lutetium-177-dotatate, and lutetium-177-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). From a pharmacokinetic perspective, fixed dosing may be appropriate for these drugs. More research into obese patient populations is needed, especially in the light of increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide.


2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (6) ◽  
pp. 889-899
Author(s):  
O. B. Shvabskaia ◽  
O. V. Izmailova ◽  
N. S. Karamnova ◽  
O. M. Drapkina

The association of hyperuricemia (HU) with cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and kidney disease has been demonstrated in numerous studies. НU is the main pathogenetic factor in the development of gout and is associated with an increase in overall and cardiovascular mortality. НU is included in the list of factors determining cardiovascular risk. According to epidemiological studies, there is a high prevalence of HU in the world and its increase in recent decades. A number of factors have been identified that contribute to the increased risk of НU. Non-modifiable factors include gender, age, genetic factors, and modifiable factors include diet and lifestyle. Nutritional unbalances, increased life expectancy, increased prevalence of obesity, and increased use of drugs (especially diuretics) are seen as contributing factors to the rise in НU. The review was carried out to summarize the available information on the effect of dietary habits, individual foods and nutrients on serum uric acid (SUA) levels and the risk of developing HU. The review presents the results of scientific studies demonstrating the relationship of НU with the consumption of foods rich in purines (offal, red meat, fish, seafood, legumes), alcohol consumption, drinks sweetened with fructose, coffee, dairy products, vegetables and fruits. Diet correction is an important and necessary step in the prevention and treatment of НU. The article reviews the basic principles of dietary management in HU and provides dietary recommendations for patients. For effective prevention and treatment of НU, a mandatory correction of the diet is required.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 747
Author(s):  
Meihui Wang ◽  
Zixu Wang ◽  
Yaoxing Chen ◽  
Yulan Dong

The rapid growth of obesity worldwide has made it a major health problem, while the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity has had a significant impact on the magnitude of chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in developing countries. A vast amount of researchers have reported a strong relationship between obesity and chronic kidney disease, and obesity can serve as an independent risk factor for kidney disease. The histological changes of kidneys in obesity-induced renal injury include glomerular or tubular hypertrophy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis or bulbous sclerosis. Furthermore, inflammation, renal hemodynamic changes, insulin resistance and lipid metabolism disorders are all involved in the development and progression of obesity-induced nephropathy. However, there is no targeted treatment for obesity-related kidney disease. In this review, RAS inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors and melatonin would be presented to treat obesity-induced kidney injury. Furthermore, we concluded that melatonin can protect the kidney damage caused by obesity by inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress, revealing its therapeutic potential.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Huaqing Liu ◽  
Min Zhang ◽  
Peipei Fu ◽  
Yan Chen ◽  
Chengchao Zhou

Background: Hunger is a pandemic among adolescents, resulting in both underweight and obesity, and posing a substantial health challenge.Objective: To estimate the dual burden of malnutrition among adolescents with hunger.Design: Data were from the Global school-based Student Health Survey (GSHS). In total, data from 26,986 adolescents with hunger across 5 regions and 41 countries between 2010 and 2015 were analyzed in this study. Weighted prevalence and mean estimates of underweight, overweight, and obesity were calculated by gender, age, and country. Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for regional and country-level income.Results: The total prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity among young adolescents with hunger was 6.2% (95% CI: 4.4–8.0%), 25.1% (95% CI: 20.3–29.9%) and 8.9% (95% CI: 6.5–11.3%), respectively. Southeast Asia had the highest prevalence of underweight (17.2%; 95% CI: 7.3–27.0%). America had the highest regional prevalence of obesity (11.1%; 95% CI: 7.2–15.1%) and overweight (28.9%; 95% CI: 21.9–35.9%). Low income countries had relatively high prevalence of underweight (11.5%; 95% CI: 3.2–19.9%). High income countries had the highest prevalence of obesity (17.4%; 95% CI: 14.9–19.9%) and overweight (38.7%; 95% CI: 32.0–45.4%). The co-existence of underweight and overweight among adolescents with hunger was highest in the Eastern Mediterranean region, and in upper-middle and high-income countries.Conclusions: There is a dual burden of underweight and obesity among adolescents with hunger aged 12–15 years, which differs between geographical regions. The integration of targeted interventions and policies is required to simultaneously address both underweight and increasing rates of obesity among adolescents with hunger in different regions.


Author(s):  
Anh D. Nguyen

With the rising prevalence of obesity, bariatric surgery has become an increasingly popular treatment option. However, bariatric surgery can contribute to esophageal dysmotility and lead to worsening or development of GERD, two conditions that are already frequently seen in the obese population. We review the effects of the various types of bariatric surgeries on the esophagus, specifically focusing on sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nasser Sakran ◽  
Yitka Graham ◽  
Tadeja Pintar ◽  
Wah Yang ◽  
Radwan Kassir ◽  
...  

AbstractThe alarming rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity and associated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have reached epidemic portions. Diabetes in its many forms and T2DM have different physiological backgrounds and are difficult to classify. Bariatric surgery (BS) is considered the most effective treatment for obesity in terms of weight loss and comorbidity resolution, improves diabetes, and has been proven superior to medical management for the treatment of diabetes. The term metabolic surgery (MS) describes bariatric surgical procedures used primarily to treat T2DM and related metabolic conditions. MS is the most effective means of obtaining substantial and durable weight loss in individuals with obesity. Originally, BS was used as an alternative weight-loss therapy for patients with severe obesity, but clinical data revealed its metabolic benefits in patients with T2DM. MS is more effective than lifestyle or medical management in achieving glycaemic control, sustained weight loss, and reducing diabetes comorbidities. New guidelines for T2DM expand the use of MS to patients with a lower body mass index.Evidence has shown that endocrine changes resulting from BS translate into metabolic benefits that improve the comorbid conditions associated with obesity, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and T2DM. Other changes include bacterial flora rearrangement, bile acids secretion, and adipose tissue effect.This review aims to examine the physiological mechanisms in diabetes, risks for complications, the effects of bariatric and metabolic surgery and will shed light on whether diabetes should be reclassified.


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