Pid Controller
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Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (18) ◽  
pp. 5945
Milan Hofreiter

The aim of this study was to present a relay shifting method for relay feedback identification of dynamical systems suitable for PID controller tuning. The proposed technique uses a biased relay to determine frequency response points from a single experiment without any assumptions about a model transfer function. The method is applicable for open-loop stable, unstable, and integration processes, even with a delay, and regardless of whether they are oscillating or non-oscillating. The core of this technique was formed by the so-called relay shifting filter. In this study, the method was applied to a parameter estimation of a second-order time-delayed (SOTD) model that can describe, with acceptable accuracy, the dynamics of most processes (even with a transport delay) near the operating point. Simultaneously, a parameter setting for the PID controller was derived based on the model parameters. The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated on various simulated processes and tested on real laboratory apparatuses.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (18) ◽  
pp. 8617
Rupal Roy ◽  
Maidul Islam ◽  
MM Rashid ◽  
Shawgi Mounis ◽  
Md Manjurul Ahsan ◽  

The aim of this work is to evaluate the output of a two-degree of freedom (DOF) proportional integral derivative (PID) controller for controlling elbow flexion and extension on an upper limb rehabilitation robot of an existing model. Since the usage of upper limb rehabilitation is increasing dramatically because of human impairment, 2DOF has been proposed in this work as a suitable controller. The 2DOF PID controller offers set-point-weight features and, hence, is fast in removing disturbance from the system and ensuring system stability. Importantly, as the system parameters are unknown in this work, the black-box model approach has been taken into consideration, using the MATLAB System identification toolbox to estimate a model. The best-fitted estimated model is then coupled with the proposed controller in the MATLAB/Simulink environment that, upon successful simulation works, leads, finally, to the hardware implementation. Three different amplitudes of sinusoidal current signals, such as 0.3 amps, 0.2 amps, and 0.1 amps, are applied for hardware measurements. Considering patients’ physical conditions. In this work, the 2DOF controller offers a fast transient response, settling time, negligible tracking error and 0% overshoot and undershoot.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Yujing Qiao ◽  
Yuqi Fan

To select reasonable PID controller parameters and improve control performances of hydraulic systems, a variable weight beetle antenna search algorithm is proposed for PID tuning in the hydraulic system. The beetle antennae search algorithm is inspired by the beetle preying habit depending on symmetry antennae on the head. The proposed algorithm added the exponential equation mechanism strategy in the basic algorithm to further improve the searching performance, the convergence speed, and the optimization accuracy and obtain new iteration and an updating method in the global searching and local searching stages. In the PID tuning process, advantages of less parameters and fast iteration are realized in the PID tuning process. In this paper, different dimension functions were tested, and results calculated by the proposed algorithm were compared with other famous algorithms, and the numerical analysis was carried out, including the iteration, the box-plot, and the searching path, which comprehensively showed the searching balance in the proposed algorithm. Finally, the reasonable PID controller parameters are found by using the proposed method, and the tuned PID controller is introduced into the hydraulic system for control, and the time-domain response characteristics and frequency response characteristics are given. The results show that the proposed PID tuning method has good PID parameter tuning ability, and the tuned PID has a good control ability, which makes the hydraulic system achieve the desired effect.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (18) ◽  
pp. 5760
Eduardo Campos-Mercado ◽  
Edwin Fernando Mendoza-Santos ◽  
Jorge Antonio Torres-Muñoz ◽  
Edwin Román-Hernández ◽  
Víctor Iván Moreno-Oliva ◽  

In this paper, we present a nonlinear PID controller based on saturation functions with variable parameters in order to regulate the output voltage of a buck converter in the presence of changes in the input voltage. The main feature of the proposed controller is to bound the control input with a variable parameter to avoid the windup effect generated by the combination of the integral control action and some operation conditions. The main advantages of the proposed nonlinear PID controller are its low computing cost and the simple tuning task to implement the control strategy in an embedded system. The acceptable behavior of the closed-loop system is presented through the simulation and experimental results.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (8) ◽  
pp. 320-334
Hartono ◽  
Karim Amarullah ◽  
Alief Maulana

Controlling the control of an induction motor with a stable and fast speed is very much needed in the industrial. To get a constant speed and be able to improve the performance of the induction motor, a PID controller circuit is needed. Fuzzy logic method is known to work with a fast response and enough good performance. The value of the motor speed formed with PID control and fuzzy logic, the rotor speed with fuzzy is the same as that without using fuzzy of 1785 rpm with the same overshoot and fuzzy rise time value of 346,605 ms and the value of rise time without fuzzy of 346,111 ms. The results obtained in the Main current without fuzzy of 2.2 A, main current with fuzzy of 2.2 A, aux. Current without fuzzy is 1.6 A, aux. Current with fuzzy 1.9 A, load and elctromag torque without fuzzy no value, load and elctromag torque with fuzzy no value, main voltage without fuzzy 154 V, main voltage with fuzzy 154 V, aux. Voltage without fuzzy 180 V, aux. Voltage with fuzzy is 184 V, rotor speed without fuzzy is 1785 rpm, rotor speed with fuzzy is 1785 rpm.

Sinan Ilgen ◽  
Akif Durdu ◽  
Erdi Gulbahce ◽  
Abdullah Cakan

This paper presents the trajectory tracking control of a two-link planar robot manipulator using MSC Adams and MATLAB co-simulation which enables the innovative virtual prototyping of the systems without any mathematical expressions. Firstly, the tracking control performance of the planar manipulator is investigated using the Sliding Mode Control (SMC) controller and the Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller in terms of the performance analysis. As a result, the SMC demonstrates effective control performances compared to the PID controller according to the required trajectory, settling time, and end position of the system. Then, the SMC controller parameters are determined using the different optimization methods offered as open source by MATLAB/Response Optimization Toolbox and compared to each other. In the virtual co-simulation, the trajectory tracking control performance is observed to be improved by optimizing the parameters of the SMC controller using Simplex Search (SS) method. All control results are examined and presented with graphics and international error standards.

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