functional outcomes
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Sarah A. Lau-Braunhut ◽  
Audrey M. Smith ◽  
Martina A. Steurer ◽  
Brittany L. Murray ◽  
Hendry Sawe ◽  

Pediatric sepsis remains a significant cause of childhood morbidity and mortality, disproportionately affecting resource-limited settings. As more patients survive, it is paramount that we improve our understanding of post-sepsis morbidity and its impact on functional outcomes. The functional status scale (FSS) is a pediatric validated outcome measure quantifying functional impairment, previously demonstrating decreased function following critical illnesses, including sepsis, in resource-rich settings. However, functional outcomes utilizing the FSS in pediatric sepsis survivors have never been studied in resource-limited settings or in non-critically ill septic children. In a Tanzanian cohort of pediatric sepsis patients, we aimed to evaluate morbidity associated with an acute septic episode using the FSS modified for resource-limited settings. This was a prospective cohort study at an urban referral hospital in Tanzania, including children with sepsis aged 28 days to 14 years old over a 12-month period. The FSS was adapted to the site's available resources. Functional status scale scores were obtained by interviewing guardians both at the time of presentation to determine the child's baseline and at 28-day follow-up. The primary outcome was “decline in functional status,” as defined by a change in FSS score of at least 3. In this cohort, 4.3% of the 1,359 surviving children completing 28-day follow-up had a “decline in functional status.” Conversely, 13.8% of guardians reported that their child was not yet back to their pre-illness state. Three-quarters of children reported as not fully recovered were not identified via the FSS as having a decline in functional status. In our cohort of pediatric sepsis patients, we identified a low rate of decline in functional status when using the FSS adapted for resource-limited settings. A higher proportion of children were subjectively identified as not being recovered to baseline. This suggests that the FSS has limitations in this population, despite being adapted for resource-limited settings. Next steps include developing and validating a further revised FSS to better capture patients identified as not recovered but missed by the current FSS.

Gabriele Molteni ◽  
Gianfranco Fulco ◽  
Luca Gazzini ◽  
Elisa Laura ◽  
Giuliana Paiola ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 301-305
Thomas Iype ◽  
Dileep Ramachandran ◽  
Praveen Panicker ◽  
Sunil D ◽  
Manju Surendran ◽  

Worldwide stroke care was affected by COVID 19 pandemic and the majority of the literature was on ischemic stroke. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for about one-fourth of strokes worldwide and has got high mortality and morbidity. We aimed to study the effect of the Pandemic on ICH outcomes and flow metrics during the first wave compared to the pre-pandemic period and how that experience was made used in managing ICH during the second wave. Ours was a single-center observational study, where consecutive patients with non-COVID spontaneous ICH aged more than 18 years who presented within 24 hours of last seen normal were included in the study. We selected the months of June, July, and August in 2021 as the second wave of the pandemic, the same months in 2020 as the first wave of the pandemic, and the same months in 2019 as the pre-pandemic period. We compared the 3-month functional outcomes, in hospital mortality and workflow metrics during the three time periods. We found poor three-month functional outcomes and higher hospital mortality during the first wave of the COVID 19 pandemic, which improved during the second wave. In-hospital time metrics measured by the door to CT time which was delayed during the first wave improved to a level better than the pre-pandemic period during the second wave. ICH volume was more during the first and second waves compared to the pre-pandemic period. Other observations of our study were younger age during the second wave and higher baseline systolic BP at admission during both pandemic waves. Our study showed that functional outcomes and flow metrics in ICH care improved during the second wave of the pandemic through crucial re-organization of hospital stroke workflows. We are sharing this experience because we may have to do further rearrangements in future as the upcoming times are challenging due to new variants emerging.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Chao-Hung Kuo ◽  
Yi-Hsuan Kuo ◽  
Chih-Chang Chang ◽  
Hsuan-Kan Chang ◽  
Li-Yu Fay ◽  

Objective:Cervical myelopathy caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is not uncommon among Asian ethnic groups. Despite reports comparing the pros and cons of anterior- and posterior-only approaches, the optimal management remains debatable. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent a combined anterior and posterior approach, simultaneous circumferential decompression and fixation, for cervical OPLL.Method:The study retrospectively reviewed patients with OPLL and who underwent circumferential decompression and fixation, combined anterior corpectomy and posterior laminectomy. The clinical outcomes were evaluated by the Visual Analog Scale of neck and arm pain, the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores, Neck Disability Index, and Nurick scores at each time-point of evaluation. Radiological evaluations included plain and dynamic radiographs and computed tomography for every patient within 2 years post-operation. Subgroup analyses were further performed between the groups, with and without intra-operative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage.Results:A total of 41 patients completed the follow-up for more than 2 years (mean = 39.8 months) and were analyzed. Continuous-type OPLL was the most common (44%), followed by segmental (27%), mixed (22%), and localized types (7%) in the cohort. Myelopathy and all other functional outcomes improved significantly at 2 years post-operation (all p < 0.05). There were 13 (32%) patients who had intra-operative CSF leakage. At 2 years post-operation, there were no differences in the demographics, functional outcomes, and complication rates between the CSF-leakage and no-leakage groups. The CSF-leakage group had more patients with continuous-type OPLL than the no-leakage group (77 vs. 29%, p = 0.004 < 0.05). During the follow-up, there was no secondary or revision surgery for pseudomeningocele, pseudarthrosis, or other surgery-related complications.Conclusions:Simultaneous circumferential decompression and fixation combine the surgical benefits of sufficient decompression by the posterior approach and direct decompression of OPLL by the anterior approach. It is an effective surgical option for patients with cervical myelopathy caused by OPLL, given that myelopathy unanimously improved without neurological complications in this study. The fusion rates were high, and reoperation rates were low. Despite higher rates of CSF leakage, there were no related long-term sequelae, and minimal wound complications.

Cynthia B. Zevallos ◽  
Mudassir Farooqui ◽  
Darko Quispe‐Orozco ◽  
Alan Mendez‐Ruiz ◽  
Andres Dajles ◽  

Background Despite thrombectomy having become the standard of care for large‐vessel occlusion strokes, acute endovascular management in tandem occlusions, especially of the cervical internal carotid artery lesion, remains uncertain. We aimed to compare efficacy and safety of acute carotid artery stenting to balloon angioplasty alone on treating the cervical lesion in tandem occlusions. Similarly, we aimed to explore those outcomes’ associations with technique approaches and use of thrombolysis. Methods and Results We performed a systematic review and meta‐analysis to compare functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale), reperfusion, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and 3‐month mortality. We explored the association of first approach (anterograde/retrograde) and use of thrombolysis with those outcomes as well. Two independent reviewers performed the screening, data extraction, and quality assessment. A random‐effects model was used for analysis. Thirty‐four studies were included in our systematic review and 9 in the meta‐analysis. Acute carotid artery stenting was associated with higher odds of modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 (odds ratio [OR], 1.95 [95% CI, 1.24–3.05]) and successful reperfusion (OR, 1.89 [95% CI, 1.26–2.83]), with no differences in mortality or symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rates. Moreover, a retrograde approach was significantly associated with modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 (OR, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.05–2.83]), and no differences were found on thrombolysis status. Conclusions Carotid artery stenting and a retrograde approach had higher odds of successful reperfusion and good functional outcomes at 3 months than balloon angioplasty and an anterograde approach, respectively, in patients with tandem occlusions. A randomized controlled trial comparing these techniques with structured antithrombotic regimens and safety outcomes will offer definitive guidance in the optimal management of this complex disease.

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