nlrp3 inflammasome activation
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Lei Li ◽  
Yan Gao ◽  
Zhenchuan Liu ◽  
Chenglai Dong ◽  
Wenli Wang ◽  

Abstract Background Neointimal hyperplasia induced by interventional surgery can lead to progressive obliteration of the vascular lumen, which has become a major factor affecting prognosis. The rate of re-endothelialization is known to be inversely related to neointima formation. Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a secreted protein with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiaging properties. Recent reports have indicated that GDF11 can improve vascular remodeling by maintaining the differentiated phenotypes of vascular smooth muscle cells. However, it is not known whether and how GDF11 promotes re-endothelialization in vascular injury. The present study was performed to clarify the influence of GDF11 on re-endothelialization after vascular injury. Methods An adult Sprague–Dawley rat model of common carotid artery balloon dilatation injury was surgically established. A recombinant adenovirus carrying GDF11 was delivered into the common carotid artery to overexpress GDF11. Vascular re-endothelialization and neointima formation were assessed in harvested carotid arteries through histomolecular analysis. CCK-8 analysis, LDH release and Western blotting were performed to investigate the effects of GDF11 on endothelial NLRP3 inflammasome activation and relevant signaling pathways in vitro. Results GDF11 significantly enhanced re-endothelialization and reduced neointima formation in rats with balloon-dilatation injury by suppressing the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Administration of an endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) inhibitor, 4PBA, attenuated endothelial NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by lysophosphatidylcholine. In addition, upregulation of LOX-1 expression involved elevated ER stress and could result in endothelial NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, GDF11 significantly inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated endothelial cell pyroptosis by negatively regulating LOX-1-dependent ER stress. Conclusions We conclude that GDF11 improves re-endothelialization and can attenuate vascular remodeling by reducing endothelial NLRP3 inflammasome activation. These findings shed light on new treatment strategies to promote re-endothelialization based on GDF11 as a future target.

2022 ◽  
Eduardo A Albornoz ◽  
Alberto A Amarilla ◽  
Naphak Modhiran ◽  
Sandra Parker ◽  
Xaria X Li ◽  

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory disease, however, an increasing number of reports indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection can also cause severe neurological manifestations, including precipitating cases of probable Parkinson's disease. As microglial NLRP3 inflammasome activation is a major driver of neurodegeneration, here we interrogated whether SARS-CoV-2 can promote microglial NLRP3 inflammasome activation utilising a model of human monocyte-derived microglia. We identified that SARS-CoV-2 isolates can bind and enter microglia, triggering inflammasome activation in the absence of viral replication. Mechanistically, microglial NLRP3 could be both primed and activated with SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in a NFκB and ACE2-dependent manner. Notably, virus- and spike protein-mediated inflammasome activation in microglia was significantly enhanced in the presence of α-synuclein fibrils, which was entirely ablated by NLRP3-inhibition. These results support a possible mechanism of microglia activation by SARS-CoV-2, which could explain the increased vulnerability to developing neurological symptoms akin to Parkinson's disease in certain COVID-19 infected individuals, and a potential therapeutic avenue for intervention.

Bone Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Sheng Chen ◽  
Xiaohao Wu ◽  
Yumei Lai ◽  
Di Chen ◽  
Xiaochun Bai ◽  

AbstractIntervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration (IVDD) is the main cause of low back pain with major social and economic burdens; however, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we show that the focal adhesion protein Kindlin-2 is highly expressed in the nucleus pulposus (NP), but not in the anulus fibrosus and the cartilaginous endplates, in the IVD tissues. Expression of Kindlin-2 is drastically decreased in NP cells in aged mice and severe IVDD patients. Inducible deletion of Kindlin-2 in NP cells in adult mice causes spontaneous and striking IVDD-like phenotypes in lumbar IVDs and largely accelerates progression of coccygeal IVDD in the presence of abnormal mechanical stress. Kindlin-2 loss activates Nlrp3 inflammasome and stimulates expression of IL-1β in NP cells, which in turn downregulates Kindlin-2. This vicious cycle promotes extracellular matrix (ECM) catabolism and NP cell apoptosis. Furthermore, abnormal mechanical stress reduces expression of Kindlin-2, which exacerbates Nlrp3 inflammasome activation, cell apoptosis, and ECM catabolism in NP cells caused by Kindlin-2 deficiency. In vivo blocking Nlrp3 inflammasome activation prevents IVDD progression induced by Kindlin-2 loss and abnormal mechanical stress. Of translational significance, adeno-associated virus-mediated overexpression of Kindlin-2 inhibits ECM catabolism and cell apoptosis in primary human NP cells in vitro and alleviates coccygeal IVDD progression caused by mechanical stress in rat. Collectively, we establish critical roles of Kindlin-2 in inhibiting Nlrp3 inflammasome activation and maintaining integrity of the IVD homeostasis and define a novel target for the prevention and treatment of IVDD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
You-Cheng Hseu ◽  
Yu-Fang Tseng ◽  
Sudhir Pandey ◽  
Sirjana Shrestha ◽  
Kai-Yuan Lin ◽  

Coenzyme Q (CoQ) analogs with a variable number of isoprenoid units have exhibited as anti-inflammatory as well as antioxidant molecules. Using novel quinone derivative CoQ0 (2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, zero side chain isoprenoid), we studied its molecular activities against LPS/ATP-induced inflammation and redox imbalance in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. CoQ0’s non- or subcytotoxic concentration suppressed the NLRP3 inflammasome and procaspase-1 activation, followed by downregulation of IL1β expression in LPS/ATP-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Similarly, treatment of CoQ0 led to LC3-I/II accumulation and p62/SQSTM1 activation. An increase in the Beclin-1/Bcl-2 ratio and a decrease in the expression of phosphorylated PI3K/AKT, p70 S6 kinase, and mTOR showed that autophagy was activated. Besides, CoQ0 increased Parkin protein to recruit damaged mitochondria and induced mitophagy in LPS/ATP-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. CoQ0 inhibited LPS/ATP-stimulated ROS generation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Notably, when LPS/ATP-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with CoQ0, Mito-TEMPO (a mitochondrial ROS inhibitor), or N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a ROS inhibitor), there was a significant reduction of LPS/ATP-stimulated NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL1β expression. Interestingly, treatment with CoQ0 or Mito-TEMPO, but not NAC, significantly increased LPS/ATP-induced LC3-II accumulation indicating that mitophagy plays a key role in the regulation of CoQ0-inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Nrf2 knockdown significantly decreased IL1β expression in LPS/ATP-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages suggesting that CoQ0 inhibited ROS-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL1β expression was suppressed due to the Nrf2 activation. Hence, this study showed that CoQ0 might be a promising candidate for the therapeutics of inflammatory disorders due to its effective anti-inflammatory as well as antioxidant properties.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (2) ◽  
pp. e2116415119
Filip Van Hauwermeiren ◽  
Nina Van Opdenbosch ◽  
Hanne Van Gorp ◽  
Nathalia de Vasconcelos ◽  
Geert van Loo ◽  

Lethal toxin (LeTx)-mediated killing of myeloid cells is essential for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, to establish systemic infection and induce lethal anthrax. The “LeTx-sensitive” NLRP1b inflammasome of BALB/c and 129S macrophages swiftly responds to LeTx intoxication with pyroptosis and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β. However, human NLRP1 is nonresponsive to LeTx, prompting us to investigate B. anthracis host–pathogen interactions in C57BL/6J (B6) macrophages and mice that also lack a LeTx-sensitive Nlrp1b allele. Unexpectedly, we found that LeTx intoxication and live B. anthracis infection of B6 macrophages elicited robust secretion of IL-1β, which critically relied on the NLRP3 inflammasome. TNF signaling through both TNF receptor 1 (TNF-R1) and TNF-R2 were required for B. anthracis-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which was further controlled by RIPK1 kinase activity and LeTx-mediated proteolytic inactivation of MAP kinase signaling. In addition to activating the NLRP3 inflammasome, LeTx-induced MAPKK inactivation and TNF production sensitized B. anthracis-infected macrophages to robust RIPK1- and caspase-8–dependent apoptosis. In agreement, purified LeTx triggered RIPK1 kinase activity- and caspase-8–dependent apoptosis only in macrophages primed with TNF or following engagement of TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptors. Consistently, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of RIPK1 inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and apoptosis of LeTx-intoxicated and B. anthracis-infected macrophages. Caspase-8/RIPK3-deficient mice were significantly protected from B. anthracis-induced lethality, demonstrating the in vivo pathophysiological relevance of this cytotoxic mechanism. Collectively, these results establish TNF- and RIPK1 kinase activity–dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation and macrophage apoptosis as key host–pathogen mechanisms in lethal anthrax.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document