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2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 194-200
Jinhwan Jang

Introduction: An automatic High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lane enforcement system is developed and evaluated. Current manual enforcement practices by the police bring about safety concerns and unnecessary traffic delays. Only vehicles with more than five passengers are permitted to use HOV lanes on freeways in Korea. Hence, detecting the number of passengers in HOVs is a core element for their development. Methods: For a quick detection capability, a YOLO-based passenger detection model was built. The system comprises three infrared cameras: two are for compartment detection and the other is for number plate recognition. Multiple infrared illuminations with the same frequency as the cameras and laser sensors for vehicle detection and speed measurement are also employed. Results: The performance of the developed system is evaluated with real-world data collected on proving ground. As a result, it showed a passenger detection error of nine percent on average. The performances revealed no difference in vehicle speeds and the number of passengers according to ANOVA tests. Conclusion: Using the developed system, more efficient and safer HOV lane enforcement practices can be made.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Kerstin Becker ◽  
Klaas Heinemann ◽  
Bruno Imthurn ◽  
Lena Marions ◽  
Sabine Moehner ◽  

AbstractEndometriosis is a chronic disease that requires a suitable, lifelong treatment. To our knowledge, the Visanne Post-approval Observational Study (VIPOS) is to date the largest real-world, non-interventional study investigating hormonal management of endometriosis. We describe women’s experiences of endometriosis in the real world by considering their symptoms and the diagnostic process in their healthcare setting. Overall, 27,840 women were enrolled from six European countries via networks of gynecologists or specialized centers. Of these, 87.8% of women were diagnosed based on clinical symptoms; the greatest and lowest proportions of women were in Russia (94.1%) and Germany (61.9%), respectively. Most women (82.8%) experienced at least one of the triad of endometriosis-associated pain symptoms: pelvic pain, pain after/during sexual intercourse, and painful menstrual periods. The most frequently reported endometriosis-associated symptoms were painful periods (61.8%), heavy/irregular bleeding (50.8%), and pelvic pain (37.2%). Women reported that endometriosis impacted their mood; 55.6% reported feeling “down”, depressed, or hopeless, and 53.2% reported feeling like a failure or having let down family/friends. VIPOS broadens our understanding of endometriosis based on real-world data by exploring the heterogeneity of symptoms women with endometriosis experience and the differences in diagnostic approaches between European countries.Trial registration:, NCT01266421; registered 24 December 2010. Registered in the European Union electronic Register of Post-Authorisation Studies as number 1613.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Simona D’Amore ◽  
Kathleen Page ◽  
Aimée Donald ◽  
Khadijeh Taiyari ◽  
Brian Tom ◽  

Abstract Background The Gaucher Investigative Therapy Evaluation is a national clinical cohort of 250 patients aged 5–87 years with Gaucher disease in the United Kingdom—an ultra-rare genetic disorder. To inform clinical decision-making and improve pathophysiological understanding, we characterized the course of Gaucher disease and explored the influence of costly innovative medication and other interventions. Retrospective and prospective clinical, laboratory and radiological information including molecular analysis of the GBA1 gene and comprising > 2500 variables were collected systematically into a relational database with banking of collated biological samples in a central bioresource. Data for deep phenotyping and life-quality evaluation, including skeletal, visceral, haematological and neurological manifestations were recorded for a median of 17.3 years; the skeletal and neurological manifestations are the main focus of this study. Results At baseline, 223 of the 250 patients were classified as type 1 Gaucher disease. Skeletal manifestations occurred in most patients in the cohort (131 of 201 specifically reported bone pain). Symptomatic osteonecrosis and fragility fractures occurred respectively in 76 and 37 of all 250 patients and the first osseous events occurred significantly earlier in those with neuronopathic disease. Intensive phenotyping in a subgroup of 40 patients originally considered to have only systemic features, revealed neurological involvement in 18: two had Parkinson disease and 16 had clinical signs compatible with neuronopathic Gaucher disease—indicating a greater than expected prevalence of neurological features. Analysis of longitudinal real-world data enabled Gaucher disease to be stratified with respect to advanced therapies and splenectomy. Splenectomy was associated with an increased hazard of fragility fractures, in addition to osteonecrosis and orthopaedic surgery; there were marked gender differences in fracture risk over time since splenectomy. Skeletal disease was a heavy burden of illness, especially where access to specific therapy was delayed and in patients requiring orthopaedic surgery. Conclusion Gaucher disease has been explored using real-world data obtained in an era of therapeutic transformation. Introduction of advanced therapies and repeated longitudinal measures enabled this heterogeneous condition to be stratified into obvious clinical endotypes. The study reveals diverse and changing phenotypic manifestations with systemic, skeletal and neurological disease as inter-related sources of disability.

Hsin-An Hou ◽  
Huey-En Tzeng ◽  
Hung-Yi Liu ◽  
Wen-Chien Chou ◽  
Hwei-Fang Tien ◽  

2021 ◽  
Diane Uschner ◽  
Matthew Bott ◽  
Michele Santacatterina ◽  
Mihili P Gunaratne ◽  
Lida Fette ◽  

Importance: Real-world data are needed to assess incidence and factors associated with breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections following vaccination. Objective: Estimate incidence of breakthrough infections and assess associations with risk factors using self-reported data from a large NC population sample. Design: Prospective observational cohort study utilizing daily online survey data to capture information about COVID-19 symptoms, testing, and vaccination status. Setting: Six health care systems in North Carolina with data collected between January 15, 2021 and September 24, 2021. Participants: Adult study participants who reported full vaccination with a COVID-19 mRNA or J&J non-replicating viral vector vaccine (n = 16,020). Exposures: Potential community exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Main Outcome and Measures: Self-reported breakthrough infection. Results: SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination was self-reported in 1.9% of participants, with an incidence rate of 7.3 per 100,000 person-years. Younger age (45-64 vs. 18-44: HR (95% CI) = 0.65 (0.51-0.82); 65+ vs. 18-44: HR (95% CI) = 0.59 (0.39-0.90)), and vaccination with J&J Ad26.COV2.S were associated with a higher risk of breakthrough infection compared to vaccination with Pfizer BNT162b2 (Ad26.COV2.S vs. BNT162b2: HR (95% CI) = 2.23 (1.40-3.56)), while participants vaccinated with mRNA-1273 (mRNA-1273 vs. BNT162b2: HR (95% CI) = 0.69 (0.50-0.96) and those residing in urban counties experienced a lower rate of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infection compared with those from suburban (HR (95% CI) = 1.39 (1.01-1.90)) or rural (HR (95% CI) = 1.57 (1.16-2.11)) counties. There was no significant association between breakthrough infection and participant sex, race, healthcare worker status, prior COVID-19 infection, routine mask use, or overall vaccination rate in the county of residence. Conclusions and Relevance: This NC community-based observational study showed that the proportion of the cohort who self-report breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections was 7.3 events per 100,000 person-years. Younger adults, those vaccinated with J&J Ad26.COV2.S, and those residing in suburban or rural counties were at higher risk of breakthrough infections and should be targeted for additional risk mitigation strategies to decrease community transmission.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Maria Klara Frey ◽  
Henrike Arfsten ◽  
Noemi Pavo ◽  
Emilie Han ◽  
Stefan Kastl ◽  

Abstract Background Sacubitril/valsartan has been shown to significantly reduce cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations due to heart failure in patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) when compared to enalapril. Data about sacubitril/valsartan in patients with a history of cancer are scarce, as these patients were excluded from the pivotal trial, PARADIGM-HF. The aim of the current study was to assess tolerability of sacubitril/valsartan in patients with a history of cancer. Methods We identified 225 patients at our heart failure out-patient unit who fulfilled the indication criteria to receive sacubitril/valsartan. Out of these, 9.3% (n = 21) had a history of histologically confirmed cancer. Oncologic surgery was performed in 16 (76.2%) patients, 11 (52.4%) patients received previous antineoplastic therapy and 9 patients (42.9%) radiation. Results Sacubitril/valsartan was withdrawn in 3 of 21 patients (14.3%) because of dizziness (n = 2) or pruritus (n = 1). After a median follow-up of 12 months (range 1–34 months), NYHA functional class improved significantly from NYHA 3 to NYHA 2 (mean -0.6, p = 0.006) and left ventricular ejection fraction as assessed by echocardiography increased significantly from 26.8 ± 5.4% to 39.2 ± 10% (mean + 12%, CI 95% [8.4–16.4], p = 0.0004). NT-proBNP was significantly reduced (baseline median 2774 pg/ml, range 1441 – 12,982 vs follow-up 1266 pg/ml, range 199–6324, p = 0.009). There was no significant change in creatinine levels (1.18 ± 0.4 vs 1.22 ± 0.4 mg/dl; mean + 0.005 mg/dl, CI 95% [-0.21- 0.12], p = 0.566). Conclusions In our pilot study we show that sacubitril/valsartan is generally well tolerated in patients with HFrEF and history of cancer. Importantly, even patients with long-standing cardiotoxicity induced heart failure can be treated and up-titrated with sacubitril/valsartan to usual target dosages, leading to improvement in LV function and biomarkers. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings in cancer patients with cardiotoxicity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Giorgia Coratti ◽  
Costanza Cutrona ◽  
Maria Carmela Pera ◽  
Francesca Bovis ◽  
Marta Ponzano ◽  

Abstract Background There is an increasing number of papers reporting the real world use of Nusinersen in different cohorts of SMA patients. Main body The aim of this paper was to critically review the literature reporting real world data on motor function in type 2 and 3 patients treated with Nusinersen, subdividing the results according to SMA type, age and type of assessment and performing a meta-analysis of the available results. We also report the available data collected in untreated patients using the same measures. Of the 400 papers identified searching for Nusinersen and spinal muscular atrophy, 19 reported motor function in types 2 and 3: 13 in adults, 4 in children and 2 included both. Twelve papers reported untreated patients’ data. All studies reported positive changes on at least one of the functional measures and at every time point while all-untreated cohorts showed negative changes. Conclusion Our review suggests that Nusinersen provides a favorable benefit in motor function across a wide range of SMA type 2 and 3 patients over a 10–14 month observation period. Although a direct comparison with studies reporting data from untreated patients cannot be made, the longitudinal changes in the treated cohorts (consistently positive) are divergent from those observed in the untreated cohorts (consistently negative). The difference could be observed both in the global cohorts and in smaller groups subdivided according to age, type or functional status.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 8
Manal Mohammed Younus ◽  
Ali Azeez Al-Jumaili

The need for the safety monitoring of the COVID-19 vaccine is unprecedented. It is an ongoing process starting from different phases of clinical trials and continued to post-marketing to tackle the emergency used authorized COVID-19 vaccines across the world. Rapid detection, exchange, prioritization, and assessment of safety signals based on available real-world data, surveillance of Adverse events following immunization (AEFI), and adverse event of special interest (AESI) by studying the observed/expected cases. Enhanced collaboration, and availability of resources, tools, and methods will add to the lessons learned from previous experiences.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Lei Liang ◽  
Chao Li ◽  
Ming-Da Wang ◽  
Hong Wang ◽  
Ya-Hao Zhou ◽  

Abstract Background and aims Although adjuvant transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for resected hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may improve survival for some patients, identifying which patients can benefit remains challenging. The present study aimed to construct a survival prediction calculator for individualized estimating the net survival benefit of adjuvant TACE for patients with resected HCC. Methods From a multicenter database, consecutive patients undergoing curative resection for HCC were enrolled and divided into the developing and validation cohorts. Using the independent survival predictors in the developing cohort, two nomogram models were constructed for patients with and without adjuvant TACE, respectively, which predictive performance was validated internally and externally by measuring concordance index (C-index) and calibration. The difference between two estimates of the prediction models was the expected survival benefit of adjuvant TACE. Results A total of 2514 patients met the inclusion criteria for the study. The nomogram prediction models for patients with and without adjuvant TACE were, respectively, built by incorporating the same eight independent survival predictors, including portal hypertension, Child–Pugh score, alpha-fetoprotein level, tumor size and number, macrovascular and microvascular invasion, and resection margin. These two prediction models demonstrated good calibration and discrimination, with all the C-indexes of greater than 0.75 in the developing and validation cohorts. A browser-based calculator was generated for individualized estimating the net survival benefit of adjuvant TACE. Conclusions Based on large-scale real-world data, an easy-to-use online calculator can be adopted as a decision aid to predict which patients with resected HCC can benefit from adjuvant TACE.

2021 ◽  
Gregory M Miller ◽  
Austin J Ellis ◽  
Rangaprasad Sarangarajan ◽  
Amay Parikh ◽  
Leonardo O Rodrigues ◽  

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic generated a massive amount of clinical data, which potentially holds yet undiscovered answers related to COVID-19 morbidity, mortality, long term effects, and therapeutic solutions. The objective of this study was to generate insights on COVID-19 mortality-associated factors and identify potential new therapeutic options for COVID-19 patients by employing artificial intelligence analytics on real-world data. Materials and Methods: A Bayesian statistics-based artificial intelligence data analytics tool (bAIcis®) within Interrogative Biology® platform was used for network learning, inference causality and hypothesis generation to analyze 16,277 PCR positive patients from a database of 279,281 inpatients and outpatients tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection by antigen, antibody, or PCR methods during the first pandemic year in Central Florida. This approach generated causal networks that enabled unbiased identification of significant predictors of mortality for specific COVID-19 patient populations. These findings were validated by logistic regression, regression by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, and bootstrapping. Results: We found that in the SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive patient cohort, early use of the antiemetic agent ondansetron was associated with increased survival in mechanically ventilated patients. Conclusions: The results demonstrate how real world COVID-19 focused data analysis using artificial intelligence can generate valid insights that could possibly support clinical decision-making and minimize the future loss of lives and resources.

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