Logistic Regression
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2021 ◽  
Shan Tan ◽  
Shizhou Li ◽  
Jianxiang Dong ◽  
Hongmei Dai ◽  
Minghua Yang ◽  

Abstract Background and objectives Vaccine is the most essential avenue to prevent hepatitis B infection in infants and preschool children in China, with the largest populations carrying hepatitis B virus in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the factors affecting the response level of anti-HBs in children, with a view to provide instructions for hepatitis B prevention clinically. MethodsThe children taking physical examinations in the Third Xiangya Hospital from January 2013 to April 2020 were recruited. Telephone follow-up were adopted to collect further information. Univariate logistic regression was used to analyse the relationship between age and anti-HBs expression. After grouping by age and anti-HBs expression, we used chi-square test and T test to compare the difference between positive and negative antibody expression in each age subgroup. The meaningful variables (P<0.10) in chi-square test and T test were assessed with collinearity and chosen for univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis by the stepwise backward maximum likelihood method (αin=0.05, αout=0.10).ResultsA total of 5838 samples (3362 males, 57.6%) were enrolled. The outcomes showed that the expression of anti-HBs was associated with age [OR=1.037(1.022-1.051)] in whole sample. Anemia[OR=0.392(0.185-0.835)], age[OR=2.542(1.961-3.295)] and Vit D[OR=0.977(0.969-0.984)] in 0.5-2.99 years subgroup, Zinc deficiency[OR=0.713(0.551-0.923] and age[OR=1.151(1.028-1.289)] in 3-5.99 years subgroup, Vit D[OR=0.983(0.971-0.995)] in 12-18 years subgroup had significant effect on the expression of anti-HBs. Conclusions This retrospective study illustrated that age, anaemia status, zinc deficiency and vitamin D were associated with the expression of anti-HBs in different age groups children, which could serve as a reference for the prevention of hepatitis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Dejene Adugna Chomen

AbstractThe purpose of this study is to assess the contribution of Oromia Credit and Saving Share Company microfinance institution on poverty alleviation in Welmera district, Oromia Special Zone Surrounding Finfine, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Both random and purposive sampling techniques were used for data collection. Three hundred and fifty-seven respondents were selected from twelve different villages for the data collection. The study used a binary logistic regression to identify the key determinants of the income improvement of respondents. The findings confirmed that education level, voluntary saving, and utilization of loan for the intended purposes are statistically significant and positively contributed to the income improvement of the respondents in the study area. The finding revealed that most of the respondents' income improved after they joined the program which impacted positively in improving their standards of living.

2021 ◽  
Jinfeng He ◽  
Bo Yuan ◽  
Shanyu Zhou ◽  
Shuyuan Peng ◽  
Ye Xu ◽  

Abstract Background: Dental visits can provide education, prevention and treatment measures for teenagers, and help to form correct oral health knowledge and attitude. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of socio-demographic factors, dental status, oral health literacy, and health-related behaviors on dental visits in early 12-year-old adolescents.Methods: 953 subjects aged 12 in Longhua District of Shenzhen were investigated. The questionnaire and clinical examination were applied in schools, and two-level logistic regression models were constructed to interpret the effect of individual and contextual factors on Shenzhen adolescents' dental visits.Results: A total of 27.6% of the participants had not been to a dentist. After the multiple factors binary logistic regression analysis, it confirmed that the following variables: Shenzhen hukou (OR =2.133, 95% CI: 1.429-3.185),moderate caries (OR =1.404, 95% CI: 1.022-1.928) and severe caries (OR =2.546, 95% CI: 1.461-4.437),Angle Class II malocclusion( OR =1.703, 95% CI: 1.134-2.556), sometimes or never toothbrushing (OR =2.985, 95% CI: 1.491-5.975), Dental floss usage (OR =1.829, 95% CI: 1.250-2.677), having had a toothache within the last 12 months (OR =1.469, 95% CI: 1.086-1.986), high Knowledge attitude level (OR =1.570, 95% CI: 1.106-2.229), moderate Knowledge attitude level (OR =1.534, 95% CI: 1.073-2.193), were associated factors for dental visit experience.Conclusions: The dental visits of 12-year-old children in Longhua District of Shenzhen is affected by multi-dimensional factors. It is suggested that oral health education should be strengthened, good oral hygiene habits should be cultivated, and the needs and utilization of oral health services for non-Shenzhen adolescents should be paid attention to, so as to effectively improve the overall oral health level of adolescents.

2021 ◽  
Hideo Sakane ◽  
Koichi Okamura ◽  
Yoichi Iizuka ◽  
Akira Honda ◽  
Eiji Takasawa ◽  

Abstract Background: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for vertebral fractures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during an era of tight management.Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 426 RA patients who had visited our outpatient RA clinic between July 2017 and June 2020. Among them, we included 107 patients (19 males and 88 females) who had undergone lateral X-ray of the thoracolumbar spine and dual-energy X-ray absorption spectroscopy for the assessment of osteoporosis. We assessed the disease activity score for 28 joints (DAS28), the history of medication for RA and osteoporosis, the number and location of vertebral fractures, and the bone mineral density (BMD). Two board-certified specialists determined osteoporotic vertebral fractures on a lateral X-ray of the thoracolumbar spine.Results: The mean age, average disease duration, and average DAS28 of the analyzed patients were 67.9 years, 14.9 years, and 2.8, respectively. Vertebral fractures were found in 33 patients (30.8%). In this population, 84.8% of patients with vertebral fractures and 59.5% of those without vertebral fractures were treated for osteoporosis with active vitamin D3, bisphosphonate, and/or denosumab. RA patients with vertebral fractures had significantly higher DAS28 values, a higher rate of patients with a history of glucocorticoid use, and lower BMD in comparison to those than without vertebral fractures (p = 0.009, p = 0.004, and p = 0.01, respectively). Logistic regression analysis showed DAS28 (p = 0.038) and BMD (p = 0.004) were independent factors associated with the presence of vertebral fractures. The ordered logistic regression analysis also showed DAS28 (p = 0.043) and BMD (p = 0.024) were independent factors that explained the number of vertebral fractures.Conclusions: Vertebral fractures were frequently observed in RA patients, even when patients were treated the recommended anti-osteoporotic agents. A high disease activity score and low BMD were associated with the presence and number of vertebral fractures in patients with RA.

Jhon F. Martinez-Paredes ◽  
Razan Alfakir ◽  
Jan L. Kasperbauer ◽  
Amy Rutt

Abstract Introduction Zenker diverticulum (ZD) usually affects adults after the 7th decade of life. Treatment for ZD is indicated for all symptomatic patients, but some patients prefer to defer surgical treatment until symptoms get worse and decrease their quality of life. Objective To evaluate the association of the preoperative symptoms in ZD patients with the size of the ZD. Methods A retrospective study design. Electronic medical records were used to identify patients diagnosed with ZD and treated over 11 years. Data collection included the chief complaints and symptoms, medical history, and findings on radiologic swallow evaluations of the patients. The diverticulum size was stratified into 3 groups: small (< 1 cm), moderate (1–3 cm), and large (> 3 cm). Results A total of 165 patients were enrolled and stratified by diverticulum size (48 small, 67 medium, and 50 large). Dysphagia, cough, and regurgitation were the most prevalent symptoms. Dysphonia was more frequent among patients with a small pouch. Logistic regression analysis showed that dysphagia and choking were associated with large and medium diverticulum size (p < 0.05). Additionally, dysphonia was significantly associated with the presence of a small-sized ZD (p < 0.04). Conclusion Upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as dysphagia and choking may be associated with a ZD > 1 cm and should always be evaluated. Additionally, the presence of dysphonia was found to be correlated with a ZD < 1 cm, suggesting that a prompt and appropriate fluoroscopic evaluation must be considered in those patients in whom no other clear cause of dysphonia is evident.

2021 ◽  
Steven H. Rauchman ◽  
Sherri G. Mendelson ◽  
Courtney Rauchman ◽  
Lora J. Kasselman ◽  
Aaron Pinkhasov ◽  

Background: The SARS-CoV2 virus continues to have devastating consequences worldwide. Though vaccinations have helped to reduce the impact of the virus, new strains still pose a threat to unvaccinated, and to a lesser extent vaccinated, individuals. Therefore, it is imperative to identify treatments that can prevent the development of severe COVID-19. Recently, acute use of SSRI antidepressants in COVID+ patients has been shown to reduce the severity of symptoms compared to placebo. Since SSRIs are a widely used anti-depressant, the aim of this study was to determine if COVID+ patients already on SSRI treatment upon admission to the hospital had reduced mortality compared to COVID+ patients not on chronic SSRI treatment. Methods: A retrospective observational study design was used. Electronic medical records of 9,043 patients with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of Covid-19 from 03/2020 to 03/2021from six hospitals were queried for demographic and clinical information. Using R, a logistic regression model was run with mortality as the outcome and SSRI status as the exposure. An adjusted logistic regression model was run to account for age category, gender, and race. All tests were considered significant at p of 0.05 or less. Results: In this sample, no patients admitted on SSRIs had them discontinued. This is consistent with current recommendations. There was no significant difference in the odds of dying between COVID+ patients on chronic SSRIs vs COVID+ patients not taking SSRIs, after controlling for age category, gender, and race. The odds of COVID+ patients on SSRIs dying was 0.98 (95%CI: 0.81, 1.18) compared to COVID+ patients not on SSRIs (p=0.83). Conclusion: In times of pandemics due to novel infectious agents it is difficult, but critical to evaluate safety and efficacy of drugs that might be repurposed for treatment. This large sample size of 9,043 patients suggests that there will be no significant benefit to use of SSRIs to decrease mortality rates for hospitalized patients with Covid-19 who are not currently on SSRI medications. This study shows the utility of large clinical databases in addressing the urgent issue of determining what commonly prescribed drugs might be useful in treating COVID-19.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Keitaro Makino ◽  
Sangyoon Lee ◽  
Seongryu Bae ◽  
Ippei Chiba ◽  
Kenji Harada ◽  

Abstract Background Established clinical assessments for detecting dementia risk often require time, cost, and face-to-face meetings. We aimed to develop a Simplified Telephone Assessment for Dementia risk (STAD) (a new screening tool utilizing telephonic interviews to predict dementia risk) and examine the predictive validity of the STAD for the incidence of dementia. Methods We developed STAD based on a combination of literature review, statistical analysis, and expert opinion. We selected 12 binary questions on subjective cognitive complaints, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle activities. In the validation study, we used STAD for 4298 community-dwelling older adults and observed the incidence of dementia during the 24-month follow-up period. The total score of STAD ranging from 0 to 12 was calculated, and the cut-off point for dementia incidence was determined using the Youden index. The survival rate of dementia incidence according to the cut-off points was determined. Furthermore, we used a decision-tree model (classification and regression tree, CART) to enhance the predictive ability of STAD for dementia risk screening. Results The cut-off point of STAD was set at 4/5. Participants scoring ≥ 5 points showed a significantly higher risk of dementia than those scoring ≤ 4 points, even after adjusting for covariates (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 2.67 [1.40–5.08]). A decision tree model using the CART algorithm was constructed using 12 nodes with three STAD items. It showed better performance for dementia prediction in terms of accuracy and specificity as compared to the logistic regression model, although its sensitivity was worse than the logistic regression model. Conclusions We developed a 12-item questionnaire, STAD, as a screening tool to predict dementia risk utilizing telephonic interviews and confirmed its predictive validity. Our findings might provide useful information for early screening of dementia risk and enable bridging between community and clinical settings. Additionally, STAD could be employed without face-to-face meetings in a short time; therefore, it may be a suitable screening tool for community-dwelling older adults who have negative attitudes toward clinical examination or are non-adherent to follow-up assessments in clinical trials.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Helen Teklie ◽  
Hywet Engida ◽  
Birhanu Melaku ◽  
Abdata Workina

Abstract Background The transfer time for critically ill patients from the emergency department (ED) to the Intensive care unit (ICU) must be minimal; however, some factors prolong the transfer time, which may delay intensive care treatment and adversely affect the patient’s outcome. Purpose To identify factors affecting intensive care unit admission of critically ill patients from the emergency department. Patients and methods A cross-sectional study design was conducted from January 13 to April 12, 2020, at the emergency department of Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital. All critically ill patients who need intensive care unit admission during the study period were included in the study. A pretested structured questionnaire was adapted from similar studies. The data were collected by chart review and observation. Then checked data were entered into Epi-data version 4.1 and cleaned data was exported to SPSS Version 25 for analysis. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Result From the total of 102 critically ill patients who need ICU admission 84.3% of them had prolonged lengths of ED stay. The median length of ED stay was 13.5 h with an IQR of 7–25.5 h. The most common reasons for delayed ICU admission were shortage of ICU beds 56 (65.1%) and delays in radiological examination results 13(15.1%). On multivariate logistic regression p < 0.05 male gender (AOR = 0.175, 95% CI: (0.044, 0.693)) and shortage of ICU bed (AOR = 0.022, 95% CI: (0.002, 0.201)) were found to have a significant association with delayed intensive care unit admission. Conclusion there was a delay in ICU admission of critically ill patients from the ED. Shortage of ICU bed and delay in radiological investigation results were the reasons for the prolonged ED stay.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Lingyu Zhang ◽  
Yanbing Hou ◽  
Bei Cao ◽  
Qian-Qian Wei ◽  
Ruwei Ou ◽  

Objective: Vascular risk factors have been reported to be associated with cognitive impairment (CI) in the general population, but their role on CI in multiple system atrophy (MSA) is unclear. This study aimed to explore the relationship between vascular risk factors and CI in patients with MSA.Methods: The clinical data and vascular risk factors were collected. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool was used to test the cognitive function of patients with MSA. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation between vascular risk factors and CI.Results: A total of 658 patients with MSA with a mean disease duration of 2.55 ± 1.47 years were enrolled. In MSA patients, hypertension was recorded in 20.2%, diabetes mellitus in 10.3%, hyperlipidemia in 10.2%, smoking in 41.2%, drinking in 34.8%, and obesity in 9.6%. The prevalence of CI in patients with MSA, MSA with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P), and MSA with predominant cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C) was 45.0, 45.1, and 44.9%, respectively. In the binary logistic regression model, patients with more than one vascular risk factors were significantly more likely to have CI in MSA (OR = 4.298, 95% CI 1.456–12.691, P = 0.008) and MSA-P (OR = 6.952, 95% CI 1.390–34.774, P = 0.018), after adjusting for age, sex, educational years, disease duration, and total Unified multiple system atrophy rating scale scores.Conclusion: Multiple vascular risk factors had a cumulative impact on CI in MSA. Therefore, the comprehensive management of vascular risk factors in MSA should not be neglected.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Beihui Xue ◽  
Jia Jiang ◽  
Lei Chen ◽  
Sunjie Wu ◽  
Xuan Zheng ◽  

ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to develop a preoperative positron emission tomography (PET)-based radiomics model for predicting peritoneal metastasis (PM) of gastric cancer (GC).MethodsIn this study, a total of 355 patients (109PM+, 246PM-) who underwent preoperative fluorine-18-fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET images were retrospectively analyzed. According to a 7:3 ratio, patients were randomly divided into a training set and a validation set. Radiomics features and metabolic parameters data were extracted from PET images. The radiomics features were selected by logistic regression after using maximum relevance and minimum redundancy (mRMR) and the least shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. The radiomics models were based on the rest of these features. The performance of the models was determined by their discrimination, calibration, and clinical usefulness in the training and validation sets.ResultsAfter dimensionality reduction, 12 radiomics feature parameters were obtained to construct radiomics signatures. According to the results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis, only carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and the radiomics signature showed statistically significant differences between patients (P&lt;0.05). A radiomics model was developed based on the logistic analyses with an AUC of 0.86 in the training cohort and 0.87 in the validation cohort. The clinical prediction model based on CA125 and SUVmax was 0.76 in the training set and 0.69 in the validation set. The comprehensive model, which contained a rad-score and the clinical factor (CA125) as well as the metabolic parameter (SUVmax), showed promising performance with an AUC of 0.90 in the training cohort and 0.88 in the validation cohort, respectively. The calibration curve showed the actual rate of the nomogram-predicted probability of peritoneal metastasis. Decision curve analysis (DCA) also demonstrated the good clinical utility of the radiomics nomogram.ConclusionsThe comprehensive model based on the rad-score and other factors (SUVmax, CA125) can provide a novel tool for predicting peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer patients preoperatively.

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