coronary computed tomography angiography
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Jia Teng Sun ◽  
Xin Cheng Sheng ◽  
Qi Feng ◽  
Yan Yin ◽  
Zheng Li ◽  

Background The pericoronary fat attenuation index (FAI) is assessed using standard coronary computed tomography angiography, and it has emerged as a novel imaging biomarker of coronary inflammation. The present study assessed whether increased pericoronary FAI values on coronary computed tomography angiography were associated with vulnerable plaque components and their intracellular cytokine levels in patients with non‐ST elevation acute coronary syndrome. Methods and Results A total of 195 lesions in 130 patients with non‐ST elevation acute coronary syndrome were prospectively included. Lesion‐specific pericoronary FAI, plaque components and other plaque features were evaluated by coronary computed tomography angiography. Local T cell subsets and their intracellular cytokine levels were detected by flow cytometry. Lesions with pericoronary FAI values >−70.1 Hounsfield units exhibited spotty calcification (43.1% versus 25.0%, P =0.015) and low‐attenuation plaques (17.6% versus 4.2%, P =0.016) more frequently than lesions with lower pericoronary FAI values. Further quantitative plaque compositional analysis showed that increased necrotic core volume (Pearson’s r=0.324, P <0.001) and fibrofatty volume (Pearson’s r=0.270, P <0.001) were positively associated with the pericoronary FAI, and fibrous volume (Pearson’s r=−0.333, P <0.001) showed a negative association. An increasing proinflammatory intracellular cytokine profile was found in lesions with higher pericoronary FAI values. Conclusions The pericoronary FAI may be a reliable indicator of local immune‐inflammatory response activation, which is closely related to plaque vulnerability. Registration URL: ; Unique identifier: NCT04792047.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Yu Jiang ◽  
Yuan Li ◽  
Ke Shi ◽  
Jin Wang ◽  
Wen-Lei Qian ◽  

Abstract Background The effect of comorbid hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on coronary artery plaques examined by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is not fully understood. We aimed to comprehensively assess whether comorbid hypertension and T2DM influence coronary artery plaques using CCTA. Materials and methods A total of 1100 T2DM patients, namely, 277 normotensive [T2DM(HTN−)] and 823 hypertensive [T2DM(HTN +)] individuals, and 1048 normotensive patients without T2DM (control group) who had coronary plaques detected on CCTA were retrospectively enrolled. Plaque type, coronary stenosis, diseased vessels, the segment involvement score (SIS) and the segment stenosis score (SSS) based on CCTA data were evaluated and compared among the groups. Results Compared with patients in the control group, the patients in the T2DM(HTN−) and T2DM(HTN +) groups had more partially calcified plaques, noncalcified plaques, segments with obstructive stenosis, and diseased vessels, and a higher SIS and SSS (all P values < 0.001). Compared with the control group, T2DM(HTN +) patients had increased odds of having any calcified and any noncalcified plaque [odds ratio (OR) = 1.669 and 1.278, respectively; both P values < 0.001]; both the T2DM(HTN-) and T2DM(HTN +) groups had increased odds of having any partially calcified plaque (OR = 1.514 and 2.323; P = 0.005 and P < 0.001, respectively), obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) (OR = 1.629 and 1.992; P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively), multivessel disease (OR = 1.892 and 3.372; both P-values < 0.001), an SIS > 3 (OR = 2.233 and 3.769; both P values < 0.001) and an SSS > 5 (OR = 2.057 and 3.580; both P values < 0.001). Compared to T2DM(HTN−) patients, T2DM(HTN +) patients had an increased risk of any partially calcified plaque (OR = 1.561; P = 0.005), multivessel disease (OR = 1.867; P < 0.001), an SIS > 3 (OR = 1.647; P = 0.001) and an SSS > 5 (OR = 1.625; P = 0.001). Conclusion T2DM is related to the presence of partially calcified plaques, obstructive CAD, and more extensive coronary artery plaques. Comorbid hypertension and diabetes further increase the risk of partially calcified plaques, and more extensive coronary artery plaques.

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