Recent advances in intravascular imaging techniques have made it possible to assess the culprit lesions of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the clinical setting. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is the most commonly used intravascular imaging technique that provides cross-sectional images of coronary arteries. IVUS can assess plaque burden and vessel remodeling. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution (10 μm) intravascular imaging technique that uses near-infrared light. OCT can identify key features of atheroma, such as lipid core and thin fibrous cap. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can detect lipid composition by analyzing the near-infrared absorption properties of coronary plaques. NIRS provides a chemogram of the coronary artery wall, which allows for specific quantification of lipid accumulation. These intravascular imaging techniques can depict histological features of plaque rupture, plaque erosion, and calcified nodule in ACS culprit lesions. However, no single imaging technique is perfect and each has its respective strengths and limitations. In this review, we summarize the implications of combined use of multiple intravascular imaging techniques to assess the pathology of ACS and guide lesion-specific treatment.
Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of Mobile health augmented Cardiac rehabilitation (MCard) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among post-acute coronary syndrome (post-ACS) patients.
Methods: At the Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology (AFIC), a tertiary care hospital in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, a two-arm randomised controlled trial was conducted in which mobile health augmented cardiac rehabilitation (MCard) was developed and implemented on post-ACS patients from January 2019 until March 2021. The trial conforms to the CONSORT statement 2010. The post-ACS patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to an intervention group (received MCard; counselling, empowering with self-monitoring devices, short text messages, in addition to standard post-ACS care) or control group (standard post-ACS care). HRQoL was assessed by generic Short Form-12 and MacNew quality of life myocardial infarction (QLMI) tools. Participants were followed for 24 weeks with data collection and analysis at three time points (baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks).
Results: At baseline, 160 patients (80 in each group; mean age 52.66±8.46 years; 126 male, 78.75%) were recruited, of which 121(75.62%) continued and were analysed at 12-weeks and 119(74.37%) at 24-weeks. The mean SF-12 physical component score significantly improved in the MCard group at 12 weeks follow-up (48.93 vs control 43.87, p<.001) and 24 weeks (53.52 vs 46.82 p<.001). The mean SF-12 mental component scores also improved significantly in the MCard group at 12 weeks follow-up (44.84 vs control 41.40, p<.001) and 24 weeks follow-up (48.95 vs 40.12, p<.001). At 12-and 24-week follow-up, all domains of MacNew QLMI (social, emotional, physical and global) were also statistically significant (p<.001) improved in the MCard group, unlike the control group.
Conclusion: MCard is an effective and acceptable intervention at improving all domains of HRQoL. There was an improvement in physical, mental, social, emotional and global domains among the MCard group in comparison to the control group. The addition of MCard programs to post-ACS standard care may improve patient outcomes and reduce the burden on the health care setting.
How to cite this:Hisam A, Zia-ul-Haq, Aziz S, Doherty P, Pell J. Effectiveness of Mobile Health Augmented Cardiac Rehabilitation (MCard) on health-related quality of life among post-acute coronary syndrome patients: A randomized controlled trial. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4724
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We investigated the relationship between ‘epigenetic age’ (EA) derived from DNA methylation (DNAm) and myocardial infarction (MI)/acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A random population sample was examined in 2003/2005 (n = 9360, 45–69, the HAPIEE project) and followed up for 15 years. From this cohort, incident MI/ACS (cases, n = 129) and age- and sex-stratified controls (n = 177) were selected for a nested case-control study. Baseline EA (Horvath’s, Hannum’s, PhenoAge, Skin and Blood) and the differences between EA and chronological age (CA) were calculated (ΔAHr, ΔAHn, ΔAPh, ΔASB). EAs by Horvath’s, Hannum’s and Skin and Blood were close to CA (median absolute difference, MAD, of 1.08, –1.91 and –2.03 years); PhenoAge had MAD of −9.29 years vs. CA. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of MI/ACS per 1–year increments of ΔAHr, ΔAHn, ΔASB and ΔAPh were 1.01 (95% CI 0.95–1.07), 1.01 (95% CI 0.95–1.08), 1.02 (95% CI 0.97–1.06) and 1.01 (0.93–1.09), respectively. When classified into tertiles, only the highest tertile of ΔAPh showed a suggestion of increased risk of MI/ACS with OR 2.09 (1.11–3.94) independent of age and 1.84 (0.99–3.52) in the age- and sex-adjusted model. Metabolic modulation may be the likely mechanism of this association. In conclusion, this case-control study nested in a prospective population-based cohort did not find strong associations between accelerated epigenetic age markers and risk of MI/ACS. Larger cohort studies are needed to re-examine this important research question.