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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 47-64
Author(s):  
Anita Maharani ◽  
Selvia Marlika ◽  
Triyanti Triyanti ◽  
Thenry Linda Sharron Pandu

This study aimed to see the effect of multi-meeting, multitasking, and meeting fatigue on productivity. The context of this study is during the Covid-19 pandemic, where phenomena related to multi-meeting, multitasking, and meeting fatigue were entirely natural. The literature used is related to multi-meeting, multitasking, and meeting fatigue, as well as productivity. We elaborate on several pieces of literature before the pandemic, and this study emerges from the results of studies during the pandemic. This research method refers to a quantitative approach, which wants to see the relationship between variables;  SMART PLS a test tool. The researcher conducts a reliability test by looking at CR and AVE, a validity test by looking at discriminant validity, and finally, conducting a path analysis by looking at the results of P-Values. This study indicates that meeting fatigue does not negatively affect productivity; multitasking has a positive effect on productivity, meeting fatigue can affect productivity when there are multi meetings as moderators, and multitasking affects productivity when there are multi meetings as moderators.


Author(s):  
Nicole Sheanon ◽  
Deborah Elder ◽  
Jane Khoury ◽  
Lori Casnellie ◽  
Iris Gutmark-Little ◽  
...  

Intro: Adult women with Turner syndrome (TS) have a high prevalence of diabetes and β-cell dysfunction that increases morbidity and mortality, but, it is unknown if there is β-cell dysfunction present in youth with TS. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of β-cell dysfunction in youth with TS and the impact of traditional therapies on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. Methods: Cross-sectional, observational study recruited 60 girls with TS and 60 healthy controls (HC) matched on pubertal status. Each subject had a history, physical exam and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Oral glucose and c-peptide minimal modeling was used to determine β-cell function. Results: Twenty-one TS girls (35%) met criteria for pre-diabetes. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was present in 18% of girls with TS and 2% HC (p-value = 0.0003). Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was present in 23% of TS girls and 0% HC (p-value < 0.001). The HbA1c was not different between TS and HC (median 5%, p= 0.42). Youth with TS had significant reductions in insulin sensitivity (SI), β-cell responsivity (Φ), and disposition index (DI) compared to HC. These differences remained significant when controlling for BMI z-score (p-values: 0.0006, 0.002, <0.0001 for SI, Φtotal, DI, respectively). Conclusions: β-cell dysfunction is present in youth with TS compared to controls. The presence of both reduced insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity suggest a unique TS-related glycemic phenotype. Based on the data from this study, we strongly suggest that providers employ serial OGTT to screen for glucose abnormalities in TS youth.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258033
Author(s):  
Prince Kubi Appiah ◽  
Bright Osei ◽  
Hubert Amu

Background Nutritional deficiencies are generally associated with increased risk and severity of tuberculosis. This study investigated the nutritional status, knowledge, and attitudes of tuberculosis (TB) patients receiving treatment in the Tema Metropolis. Method A cross-sectional design was used to collect data on the nutritional knowledge, attitude, and status of TB patients. Nutritional status was analysed using World Health Organization’s formula for body mass index. Pearson’s chi-square and logistic regression models were used to assess associations between predictor and outcome variables. All statistical analyses were considered significant at p-values < 0.05. Result The prevalence of malnutrition among TB patients was 39.7%, 14.4%, and 4.8% for underweight, overweight, and obesity respectively. There was a high (61.0%) knowledge of nutrition among the patients. Also, 65.8% had good attitude towards nutrition. There were significant associations between normal nutritional status and age of the TB patients (p = 0.041), highest educational level attained (p = 0.036), employment status (p = 0.019), status of alcohol intake (p = 0.031), number of months on TB treatment (p = 0.021), and attitude towards nutrition (p = 0.028). Conclusion There was a reasonable nutrition-related knowledge and attitude towards nutrition among the TB patients. However, that did not reflect on their nutritional status. We recommend continuing education on smoking cessation, avoidance of harmful use of alcohol, and the establishment of food aid and other livelihood intervention programs for TB patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Author(s):  
Azar Moezy ◽  
Parisa Nejati ◽  
Linda Ghasemzadegan

Background: Hand grip plays a fundamental role in most daily and athletic activities of the upper extremities. Objectives: The study compared the effect of various methods of forearm Kinesio-taping (KT) on the hand grip strength and endurance of Iranian elite squash players during their sporting activities at different times. Methods: Thirty-three female squash players were assigned to a quasi-experimental study, and KT was applied on their dominant forearm (on the flexor area, on the extensor area, and placebo taping). Grip strength was evaluated before, immediately, 30, and 60 minutes after KT, and grip endurance was also assessed before and 60 minutes after KT using MIE digital grip analyzer. Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyze the results of grip strength, and ANOVA and the sample t-test were applied to analyze the grip endurance data. Results: The findings revealed no significant differences within the grip strength at different phases (P > 0.05). However, p values for the outcomes of KT on the flexor area‎, KT on the extensor area‎, and placebo mode were respectively 0.145, 0.178, 0.065 in each phase of the evaluation. A significant difference ‎among KT groups and the LSD test revealed a significant increase in grip endurance in the mode of KT on the extensor area, whereas there have been no significant differences in grip endurance in KT on flexor (P = 0.785) and extensor (P = 0.457) areas. Conclusions: There was no obvious superiority of the various methods of forearm ‎ KT ‎ on grip strength at different times; nevertheless, KT was an efficient method for retaining grip endurance in squash players with no significant differences between the flexor and extensor locations.


Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (20) ◽  
pp. 2475
Author(s):  
Vitoantonio Bevilacqua ◽  
Nicola Altini ◽  
Berardino Prencipe ◽  
Antonio Brunetti ◽  
Laura Villani ◽  
...  

The COVID-19 pandemic is inevitably changing the world in a dramatic way, and the role of computed tomography (CT) scans can be pivotal for the prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Since the start of the pandemic, great care has been given to the relationship between interstitial pneumonia caused by the infection and the onset of thromboembolic phenomena. In this preliminary study, we collected n = 20 CT scans from the Polyclinic of Bari, all from patients positive with COVID-19, nine of which developed pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). For eight CT scans, we obtained masks of the lesions caused by the infection, annotated by expert radiologists; whereas for the other four CT scans, we obtained masks of the lungs (including both healthy parenchyma and lesions). We developed a deep learning-based segmentation model that utilizes convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in order to accurately segment the lung and lesions. By considering the images from publicly available datasets, we also realized a training set composed of 32 CT scans and a validation set of 10 CT scans. The results obtained from the segmentation task are promising, allowing to reach a Dice coefficient higher than 97%, posing the basis for analysis concerning the assessment of PTE onset. We characterized the segmented region in order to individuate radiomic features that can be useful for the prognosis of PTE. Out of 919 extracted radiomic features, we found that 109 present different distributions according to the Mann–Whitney U test with corrected p-values less than 0.01. Lastly, nine uncorrelated features were retained that can be exploited to realize a prognostic signature.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nicole White ◽  
Thirunavukarasu Balasubramaniam ◽  
Richi Nayak ◽  
Adrian Barnett

Appropriate descriptions of statistical methods are essential for evaluating research quality and reproducibility. Despite continued efforts to improve reporting in publications, inadequate descriptions of statistical methods persist. At times, reading statistical methods sections can conjure feelings of deja vu, with content resembling cut-and-pasted or "boilerplate text" from already published work.We analyzed text extracted from published statistical methods sections to evaluate the amount of recycled text. Topic modeling was applied to analyze data from 111,731 papers published in PLOS ONE and 9,632 studies from the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR). PLOS ONE topics emphasized definitions of statistical significance, software and descriptive statistics. One in three PLOS ONE papers contained at least 1 sentence that was a direct copy from another paper. 12,498 papers (11%) closely matched to the sentence "a p-value &lt; 0.05 was considered statistically significant". Common topics across ANZCTR studies differentiated between study designs and analysis methods, with matching text found in approximately 3% of records.Our findings quantify a serious problem affecting the reporting of statistical methods and shed light on perceptions about the communication of statistics as part of the scientific process. Results further emphasize the importance of rigorous statistical review to ensure that adequate descriptions of methods are prioritized over relatively minor details such as p-values and software when reporting research outcomes.


Author(s):  
Myeongseong Lee ◽  
Jacek A. Koziel ◽  
Núbia Macedo ◽  
Peiyang Li ◽  
Baitong Chen ◽  
...  

This study evaluated the use of filtration and UV-A photocatalysis for the reduction of particulate matter (PM) and airborne bacterial pathogens in swine barns. Two MERV filters (8 and 15) were used to mitigate PM concentrations measured at the PM 1, PM 2.5, respirable PM, and PM 10 ranges. Filtration was also used to generate different levels of airborne pathogens to be treated by UV-A. Results show that MERV 8 and 15 filters effectively reduced PM concentrations (96-98%) in air exhausted from a swine barn (p ranged from &lt; 0.01 to 0.04). UV-A photocatalysis did not mitigate PM concentrations. UV-A photocatalysis treatment reduced measured colony-forming units (CFUs) by 15-95%. The CFU percent reduction was higher when airborne PM concentration was low. The numeric results suggested a real mitigation effect despite p-values that did not meet the usual statistical cut-off of &lt;0.05 for significance due to the large variability of the CFU control samples. Normalization of measured airborne pathogen concentrations by smaller PM size range concentrations led to emerging significant treatment differences for CFUs. A significant decrease (~60% reduction; p &lt; 0.03) in the concentration of viable airborne bacteria was shown for all PM below the 10-micron range.


Author(s):  
Suchitra Palve ◽  
Sachin Palve

Background: Learner-centred methods for teaching knowledge in the undergraduate medical curriculum utilizing an integrated approach include active learning approaches such as Problem-oriented learning and self-directed learning are two types of education. Aim and objectives: The study aimed to see if self-directed learning and a problem-solving approach to physiology may benefit first-year medical students. Material and methods: 250 students enrolled in Phase I MBBS for two physiology modules: CVS and RS, were involved in this cross-sectional study. Group A (n=125) received self-directed learning sessions for similar topics, whereas Group B (n=125) received problem-oriented learning sessions. An objective evaluation of all subjects covered was done after each SDL and POL session, and the results were analyzed using an unpaired t-test. Results: Cardiovascular physiology self-directed learning sessions, 25.6 % (32/125) of students received maximum scores (group A), whereas 21.6 % (27/125) received moderate grades. 31.2 % (39/125) of problem-oriented sessions received maximum points, whereas 47.2 % (59/125) of pulmonary system module (group A) sig. SDL sessions received intermediate points. The p values (n=0.008) (n=0.009) for both modules indicated a significant difference between 32.8 % (41/125) of those who earned maximum scores and 48 % (60/125) of those who received intermediate grades. With p values of 0.0192, 0.0190, and 0.01179, respectively, pupils achieving 80–89 %, and 70–79 % in both SDL and PBL, had significant variations in their total scores in their internal evaluation when SDL and POL were compared to their overall scores. Conclusion: Self-directed learning sessions are less successful than problem-oriented learning sessions at communicating concepts. It takes time to raise learner’s awareness and prepare them for active; Techniques for learning that are centered.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
bahareh motaghi ◽  
fereshte Aein ◽  
ziba Reisi

Abstract Background and ObjectivesAlthough pregnancy is a joyful period for most women, the physiological, anatomical, and biochemical changes can cause stress among mothers. low back pain (LBP), and pelvic pain (PP) are common in pregnancy. Also, considering that Pilates also has an effect on reducing LBP during non-pregnancy, in order to promote women's health during pregnancy and reduce economic costs, we decided to measure the effect of Pilates on reducing pain in pregnant women.Materials and MethodsIn the present double-blind randomized clinical trial, the effect of Pilates on reducing pain in pregnancy is investigated. The participants include 60 pregnant women who referred to the health care centers in Shahrekord City. The participants are randomly assigned into the intervention and control groups. The intervention group women, who are at 20 weeks of gestation, are required to attend two Pilates sessions per week for 12 weeks. Each session lasted 30 minutes with moderate intensity. Followed by the intervention, pain assessment was carried out using a visual analog scale (VAS). Data are analyzed using independent t-test in SPSS software version 23. The P-values of <0.05 are statistically significant.ResultsTwo groups are matched in terms of their demographic characteristics prior to the intervention. After the intervention, low back pain (0.001) and pelvic pain (P<0.001) are significantly lower in the intervention than the control group.ConclusionPilates can decrease low back pain and pelvic pain in pregnancy.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 10-15
Author(s):  
Faria Tabassum Tanni ◽  
Tanzila Rafique ◽  
Tanjila Akter ◽  
Khanum Huzzatun Nahar Khawla Binta Harun ◽  
Gazi Shamim Hasssan

Objective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion in school-age children from a selective area of the urban and rural community of Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 748 children aged 08-12 years old were examined from October 2019 to September 2020 in Sylhet Sardar Upazila, Bangladesh. Angle”s classification was used for recording molar relationship with malocclusion traits. The study participants were examined by disposable dental tools (calibrated probs and mirror) including torchlight. After the collection of all data, it was compiled and analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Windows version 23. Chi-square test was used for categorical variables. P values <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Result: The prevalence of malocclusion in urban school-age children was 237(63.4%) and in rural 213(57.0%).In urban area, the prevalence of malocclusion was 109(58.3%) in boys and 128(68.4%) in girls group. The majority (70.5%) were found Angle’s class I in urban group and 148(69.5%) in rural. One forty three (60.3%) patients were found increased overbite with malocclusion in urban group and 124(58.2%) in rural. Angle’s class-I malocclusion and Increased overbite were the most commonly occurring   malocclusion. Conclusion: Prevalence of malocclusion was more in urban school age children when compared with rural. Malocclusion was significantly more in girls than boys in both urban and rural area. Angle’s class-I malocclusion and Increased overbite were the most commonly occurring malocclusion of school age children from a selected urban and rural community of Bangladesh. Update Dent. Coll. j: 2021; 11(2): 10-15


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