acute coronary syndrome
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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 ◽  
pp. 100346
Chor-Cheung Frankie TAM ◽  
David SIU ◽  
Hung Fat TSE

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Takashi Kubo ◽  
Kosei Terada ◽  
Yasushi Ino ◽  
Yasutsugu Shiono ◽  
Shengxian Tu ◽  

Recent advances in intravascular imaging techniques have made it possible to assess the culprit lesions of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the clinical setting. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is the most commonly used intravascular imaging technique that provides cross-sectional images of coronary arteries. IVUS can assess plaque burden and vessel remodeling. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution (10 μm) intravascular imaging technique that uses near-infrared light. OCT can identify key features of atheroma, such as lipid core and thin fibrous cap. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can detect lipid composition by analyzing the near-infrared absorption properties of coronary plaques. NIRS provides a chemogram of the coronary artery wall, which allows for specific quantification of lipid accumulation. These intravascular imaging techniques can depict histological features of plaque rupture, plaque erosion, and calcified nodule in ACS culprit lesions. However, no single imaging technique is perfect and each has its respective strengths and limitations. In this review, we summarize the implications of combined use of multiple intravascular imaging techniques to assess the pathology of ACS and guide lesion-specific treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Fengbo Xu ◽  
Guoqin Wang ◽  
Nan Ye ◽  
Weijing Bian ◽  
Lijiao Yang ◽  

Abstract Background Renal insufficiency (RI) is a frequent comorbidity among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We aimed to evaluate the attributable risk associated with mild RI for the in-hospital outcomes in patients with ACS. Methods The Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China-ACS (CCC-ACS) Project was a collaborative study of the American Heart Association and the Chinese Society of Cardiology. A total of 92,509 inpatients with a discharge diagnosis of ACS were included. The attributable risk was calculated to investigate the effect of mild RI (eGFR 60-89 ml / min · 1.73 m2) on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) during hospitalization. Results The average age of these ACS patients was 63 years, and 73.9% were men. The proportion of patients with mild RI was 36.17%. After adjusting for other possible risk factors, mild RI was still an independent risk factor for MACEs in ACS patients. In the ACS patients, the attributable risk of eGFR 60-89ml/min·1.73m2 to MACEs was 7.78%, 4.69% of eGFR 45-59 ml/min·1.73m2, 4.46% of eGFR 30-44 ml/min·1.73m2, and 3.36% of eGFR<30 ml/min·1.73m2. Conclusion Compared with moderate to severe RI, mild RI has higher attributable risk to MACEs during hospitalization in Chinese ACS population.

Jia Teng Sun ◽  
Xin Cheng Sheng ◽  
Qi Feng ◽  
Yan Yin ◽  
Zheng Li ◽  

Background The pericoronary fat attenuation index (FAI) is assessed using standard coronary computed tomography angiography, and it has emerged as a novel imaging biomarker of coronary inflammation. The present study assessed whether increased pericoronary FAI values on coronary computed tomography angiography were associated with vulnerable plaque components and their intracellular cytokine levels in patients with non‐ST elevation acute coronary syndrome. Methods and Results A total of 195 lesions in 130 patients with non‐ST elevation acute coronary syndrome were prospectively included. Lesion‐specific pericoronary FAI, plaque components and other plaque features were evaluated by coronary computed tomography angiography. Local T cell subsets and their intracellular cytokine levels were detected by flow cytometry. Lesions with pericoronary FAI values >−70.1 Hounsfield units exhibited spotty calcification (43.1% versus 25.0%, P =0.015) and low‐attenuation plaques (17.6% versus 4.2%, P =0.016) more frequently than lesions with lower pericoronary FAI values. Further quantitative plaque compositional analysis showed that increased necrotic core volume (Pearson’s r=0.324, P <0.001) and fibrofatty volume (Pearson’s r=0.270, P <0.001) were positively associated with the pericoronary FAI, and fibrous volume (Pearson’s r=−0.333, P <0.001) showed a negative association. An increasing proinflammatory intracellular cytokine profile was found in lesions with higher pericoronary FAI values. Conclusions The pericoronary FAI may be a reliable indicator of local immune‐inflammatory response activation, which is closely related to plaque vulnerability. Registration URL: ; Unique identifier: NCT04792047.

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