Acute Coronary Syndrome
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2021 ◽  
pp. 6-59
Author(s):  
O. L. Barbarash ◽  
A. L. Komarov ◽  
E. P. Panchenko ◽  
I. I. Staroverov ◽  
R. M. Shahnovich ◽  
...  

The EAC Guidelines represent the views of the EAC, and were produced after careful consideration of the scientific and medical knowledge, and the evidence available at the time of their publication. The EAC is not responsible in the event of any contradiction, discrepancy, and/or ambiguity between the EAC Guidelines and any other official recommendations or guidelines issued by the relevant public health authorities, in particular in relation to good use of healthcare or therapeutic strategies. Health professionals are encouraged to take the EAC Guidelines fully into account when exercising their clinical judgment, as well as in the determination and the implementation of preventive, diagnostic, or therapeutic medical strategies; however, the EAC Guidelines do not override, in any way whatsoever, the individual responsibility of health professionals to make appropriate and accurate decisions in consideration of each patient’s health condition and in consultation with that patient and, where appropriate and/or necessary, the patient’s caregiver. Nor do the EAC Guidelines exempt health professionals from taking into full and careful consideration the relevant official updated recommendations or guidelines issued by the competent public health authorities, in order to manage each patient’s case in light of the scientifically accepted data pursuant to their respective ethical and professional obligations. It is also the health professional’s responsibility to verify the applicable rules and regulations relating to drugs and medical devices at the time of prescription.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jasper Luijkx ◽  
Patty Winkler ◽  
Arnoud van 't Hof

The combination of oral anticoagulants with platelet inhibitors has been widely investigated in patients with coronary stenting and concomitant atrial fibrillation. In these patients, default therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndrome is clopidogrel plus non–vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant, omitting aspirin. However, in view of the high thromboembolic risk associated with acute coronary syndrome and the number of poor metabolizers for clopidogrel, investigation of alternative P2Y12-inhibitors is mandatory. This prospective, multicenter, open-label, registry-based, randomized, controlled trial aims to show the non-inferiority of dabigatran plus ticagrelor versus dabigatran plus clopidogrel in patients on chronic anticoagulants who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndrome. The primary end point is major bleeding as defined by the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium bleeding definition. Trial registration number: NL75644.096.21


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 36-44
Author(s):  
L Rasputina ◽  
D Didenko ◽  
A Solomonchyk

Background. The use of b- blockers in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is recommended for all patients, who has not contraindications. The study of the effects of esmolol during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains relevant. Objective. To evaluate the features of the effect of esmolol (Biblock, “YURiA-PHARM”) on heart rate and blood pressure in patients with ACS during PCI.Materials and methods. The study included 30 patients, 15 men and 15 women, who were hospitalized in a specialized cardiology department with ACS with elevation of the ST segment. All patients underwent a general clinical examination, ECG recording in 12 leads, PCI according to the standard protocol with ECG and blood pressure monitoring. All patients were given infusion of esmolol before the standard therapy. The level of heart rate reduction, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), the correlation of heart rate reduction during esmolol infusion with the clinical and functional parameters of patients and the degree of coronary artery (CA) damage were analyzed.Results. Decreased heart rate and blood pressure during infusion of esmolol in all patients. Before the infusion, the heart rate av-eraged (109.8 ± 4.0) beats per minute. After the infusion – (92.8 ± 3.2) beats per minute, (p < 0.001) with an average duration of infusion (18.2 ± 2.3) minutes. The decrease in SBP levels during infusion occurred on average by (22.8 ± 2.5) mm Hg, DBP – by (16.0 ± 2.1) mm Hg, no patient had hypotension. According to the results of correlation analysis, it was found that the decrease in heart rate with the use of esmolol has a correlation with the average age of patients (r = -0.47, p = 0.0012), with the presence of multivascular coronary artery disease (r = -0.38, p = 0.002). Weaker negative correlation was found with the initial level of SBP (r = -0.28, p = 0.015), the presence of a history of myocardial infarction (r = -0.27, p = 0.005), the presence of signs of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) on the ECG (r = -0.22, p = 0.008), and a history of arterial hypertension that was not treated according to current recommendations (r = -0.21, p = 0.032).Conclusions. The use of esmolol solution in patients with ACS who have supraventricular tachycardia and elevated blood pressure during PCI can improve control of heart rate, SBP and DBP, a significant decrease is observed after 10 minutes of dose titration. Careful titration of esmolol solution and monitoring of ECG and blood pressure revealed no side effects, including bradycardia and hypotension, which indicates a high safety profile of the drug.


Author(s):  
L. H. Koper ◽  
L. D. S. Frenk ◽  
J. G. Meeder ◽  
F. H. M. van Osch ◽  
A. L. Bruinen ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The HEART score is a validated risk stratification tool for chest pain patients presenting to the emergency department and was recently investigated for implementation in a pre-hospital setting. Fingerstick (capillary blood) point-of-care (POC) troponin testing enables quick measurements outside the hospital and seems easier to implement than the current venous blood sampling techniques. This study investigates the diagnostic accuracy of the modified HEART score, integrating fingerstick POC troponin testing, in ruling out acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods The data of 96 patients with chest pain, included in a study investigating a novel POC troponin device under development at the cardiac emergency department, were analysed retrospectively. Based on the patients’ admission data and capillary POC high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-cTnI) results, the modified HEART score was determined. The outcome measure, for evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of the modified HEART score, was the occurrence of ACS. Results Of the total study population, 33 patients (34%) were diagnosed with ACS. Seventeen patients (18%) were classified as low risk (0–3 points) and one patient (6%) in this group was diagnosed with ACS. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of the modified HEART score was 97.0 and 97.6%, respectively. Conclusion The modified HEART score, integrating capillary POC hs-cTnI results, is a promising tool for ruling out ACS in patients with chest pain presenting to the cardiac emergency department. These results encourage prospective investigation into the integration of fingerstick POC troponin testing in the modified HEART score in a pre-hospital setting.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Author(s):  
Ying Li ◽  
Li Li ◽  
Kun Wang ◽  
Pengtao Wu ◽  
Yijie Cui

Objective. The aim of this study was at investigating the risk stratification and prognostic value of hypersensitive troponin T (hs-TnT) combined with matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods. 80 patients with coronary syndrome admitted to our hospital from January 2019 to January 2020 and 40 healthy people (control group) in the same period were selected. According to different types of diseases, the patients were divided into an acute group ( n = 40 ) and stable group ( n = 40 ). Besides, they all were monitored by the hs-TnT value, serum MMP-2, and coronary angiography at admission and the comparative analysis was carried out. The patients in both groups were followed up for 30 days, and the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events in the patients during this period was recorded. Results. Compared with those in the control group, the MMP-2 and hs-TnT levels in the acute group and the stable group were significantly higher and the MMP-2 and hs-TnT levels in the acute group were significantly higher than those in the stable group, with statistically significant differences ( P < 0.05 ). The 30-day follow-up results showed that the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events in the acute group was significantly higher than that in the stable group, with statistically significant differences ( P < 0.05 ). The hs-TnT and MMP-2 levels in the acute myocardial infarction (AMI) group were significantly higher than those in the unstable angina pectoris (UAP) group, with statistically significant differences ( P < 0.01 ). The hs-TnT and MMP-2 levels in the non-single-vessel group were significantly higher than those in the single-vessel group, with statistically significant differences ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion. The hs-TnT and MMP-2 high expression levels are closely associated with myocardial injury, and they can effectively predict the severity of patients’ disease. In addition, the hs-TnT and MMP-2 elevated levels can be considered as an important index to judge the short-term treatment efficacy and the risk stratification of early ACS, playing an important role in clinical treatment and rehabilitation in the later stage.


Cardiology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ran Eliaz ◽  
Bethlehem Mengesha ◽  
Tal Ovdat ◽  
Zaza Iakobishvili ◽  
David Hasdai ◽  
...  

Introduction: We aimed to compare the outcomes of ACS (acute coronary syndrome) patients undergoing in-hospital PCI (percutaneous coronary intervention) treated with prasugrel versus ticagrelor. Methods: Among 7,233 patients enrolled to the ACSIS (Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey) between 2010 and 2018, we identified 1126 eligible patients treated with prasugrel and 817 with ticagrelor. Comparison between the groups was preformed separately in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, propensity score matched (PSM) STEMI patients, and non-ST-elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS) patients. Results: In-hospital complication rates, including rates of stent thrombosis, were not significantly different between groups. In PSM STEMI patients, 30-day re-hospitalization rate (p <0.05), 30-day MACE (the composite of death, MI, stroke and urgent revascularization; p=0.006), and 1-year mortality rates (p = 0.08) were higher in the ticagrelor group compared to the prasugrel group; In NSTE-ACS patients, outcomes were not associated with drug choice. In cox regression analysis applied on the entire cohort, prasugrel was associated with lower 1-year mortality in STEMI patient but not in NSTE-ACS patients (p for interaction 0.03). Conclusions: Compared to ticagrelor, prasugrel was associated with superior clinical outcomes in STEMI patients, but not in NSTE-ACS patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (22) ◽  
pp. 5442
Author(s):  
June-sung Kim ◽  
Youn-Jung Kim ◽  
Yo Sep Shin ◽  
Shin Ahn ◽  
Won Young Kim

It is challenging to rule out acute coronary syndrome among chest pain patients without both ST-segment elevation in electrocardiography and troponin elevation at emergency departments (ED). The purpose of this study was to develop a prediction model for rapidly determining the occurrence of significant stenosis in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Retrospective observational cohort study was conducted with 904 patients who had presented with chest pain without troponin elevation and ST-segment changes and underwent CCTA between January 2017 and December 2018. The primary endpoint was the presence of significant stenosis on CCTA, defined as narrowing above 70% diameter. The logistic regression model was used for development a new predictive model. One hundred and thirty-four patients (14.8%) were shown severe stenosis. The independent associated factors for significant stenosis were age ≥65 years, male, diabetes, history of acute coronary syndrome, and typical chest pain. Based these results, we developed a new prediction model. The area under the curve was 0.782 (95% confidence interval 0.742–0.822). Moreover, score of ≥5 was chosen as cut-off values with 86.6% sensitivity and 56.4% specificity. In conclusion, among chest pain patients without ST changes and troponin elevation, the new score will be helpful to identify potential candidate for CCTA such as patients with significant stenosis.


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