health insurance
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2022 ◽  
Emily Terlizzi ◽  
Robin Cohen

This report presents state, regional, and national estimates of the percentage of people who were uninsured, had private health insurance coverage, and had public health insurance coverage at the time of the interview.

2022 ◽  
Amy Cha

This report presents national estimates of different types of health insurance coverage and lack of coverage (uninsured). Estimates are presented by selected sociodemographic characteristics, including age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, family income, education level, employment status, and marital status.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Anurag Saxena ◽  
Mayur Trivedi ◽  
Zubin Cyrus Shroff ◽  
Manas Sharma

Abstract Background Government-sponsored health insurance schemes (GSHIS) aim to improve access to and utilization of healthcare services and offer financial protection to the population. India’s Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY) is one such GSHIS. This paper aims to understand how the processes put in place to manage hospital-based transactions, from the time a beneficiary arrives at the hospital to discharge are being implemented in PM-JAY and how to improve them to strengthen the scheme’s operation. Methods Guidelines were reviewed for the processes associated with hospital-based transactions, namely, beneficiary authentication, treatment package selection, preauthorization, discharge, and claims payments. Across 14 hospitals in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh states, the above-mentioned processes were observed, and using a semi-structured interview guide fifty-three respondents were interviewed. The study was carried out from March 2019 to August 2019. Results Average turn-around time for claim reimbursement is two to six times higher than that proposed in guidelines and tender. As opposed to the guidelines, beneficiaries are incurring out-of-pocket expenditure while availing healthcare services. The training provided to the front-line workers is software-centric. Hospital-based processes are relatively more efficient in hospitals where frontline workers have a medical/paramedical/managerial background. Conclusions There is a need to broaden capacity-building efforts from enabling frontline staff to operate the scheme’s IT platform to developing the technical, managerial, and leadership skills required for them. At the hospital level, an empowered frontline worker is the key to efficient hospital-based processes. There is a need to streamline back-end processes to eliminate the causes for delay in the processing of claim payment requests. For policymakers, the most important and urgent need is to reduce out-of-pocket expenses. To that end, there is a need to both revisit and streamline the existing guidelines and ensure adherence to the guidelines.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Gihan Hamdy Elsisi ◽  
Ayman Afify ◽  
Ashraf Abgad ◽  
Ibtissam Zakaria ◽  
Nabil Nasif ◽  

Abstract Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus causes a sizable burden globally from both health and economic points of view. This study aimed to assess the budget impact of substituting sitagliptin with liraglutide versus other glucose-lowering drugs from the private health insurance perspective in Egypt over a 3-year time horizon. Methods Two budget impact models were compared with the standard of care (metformin, pioglitazone, gliclazide, insulin glargine, repaglinide, and empagliflozin) administered in addition to liraglutide or sitagliptin versus the standard of care with placebo. A gradual market introduction of liraglutide or sitagliptin was assumed, and the existing market shares for the other glucose-lowering drugs were provided and validated by the Expert Panel. The event rates were extracted from the LEADER and TECOS trials. Direct and mortality costs were measured. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results The estimated target population of 120,574 type 2 diabetic adult patients was associated with cardio vascular risk. The budget impact per patient per month for liraglutide is EGP29 ($6.7), EGP39 ($9), and EGP49 ($11.3) in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd years, respectively. The budget impact per patient per month for sitagliptin is EGP11 ($2.5), EGP14 ($3.2), and EGP18 ($4.1) in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd years, respectively. Furthermore, adoption of liraglutide resulted in 203 fewer deaths and 550 avoided hospitalizations, while sitagliptin resulted in 43 increased deaths and 14 avoided hospitalizations. The treatment costs of liraglutide use are mostly offset by substantial savings due to fewer cardiovascular-related events, avoided mortality and avoided hospitalizations over 3 years. Conclusion Adding liraglutide resulted in a modest budget impact, suggesting that the upfront drug costs were offset by budget savings due to fewer cardiovascular-related complications and deaths avoided compared to the standard of care. Sitagliptin resulted in a small budget impact but was associated with increased deaths and fewer hospitalizations avoided.

2022 ◽  
Ah Reum Lim ◽  
Wonse Park ◽  
Seok Joo Moon ◽  
Min Sun Kim ◽  
Soohyeon Lee

Abstract Purpose: Bone-modifying agents (BMAs) are key components in the management of cancer patients with bone metastasis. Despite their clinical benefits, the use of BMAs is associated with adverse dental events including medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). This study investigated the rate of preoperative dental surveillance to reduce the incidence of adverse dental events including MRONJ after BMA treatment in patients with bone metastasis from breast and prostate cancer. Methods: Data, including age, cancer diagnosis, administered BMAs, and adverse dental events during cancer treatment, of patients with bone metastasis from breast and prostate cancer who received at least one infusion of BMA between 2007 and 2019 were extracted from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (KNHIS) dataset. Results: Of the 15357 patients who received BMAs, 1706 patients (11.1%) underwent dental check-ups before BMA treatment. The proportion of patients receiving dental check-ups increased from 4.4% in 2007 to 16.7% in 2019. Referral for dental check-up was more frequent in clinics and primary hospitals than in tertiary hospitals, and from the departments of internal medicine and urology than from the department of general surgery, regardless of the patient's health insurance status. After BMA treatment, 3328 patients (21.6%) developed adverse dental events, including tooth extraction (73.0%), abscess (16.9%), acute periodontitis (5.3%), acute pericoronitis (2.6%), and MRONJ (2.2% of 3328, 0.5% of 15357). Conclusions: Considering the long treatment period in patients with metastatic cancer, coordination between dentists and oncologists is necessary to ensure appropriate dental treatment before the initiation of BMAs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Matthäus Lottes ◽  
Viviane Bremer ◽  
Christof Prugger ◽  
Christian Kollan ◽  
Daniel Schmidt

Abstract Background Recent patent losses for antiretroviral drugs (ARV) have led to the debate of cost-saving through the replacement of patented drugs with generic drugs. The split of recommended single-tablet regimens (STR) into their single substance partners is one of the considerations mentioned in said debate. Particularly, generic tenofovir disoproxil/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) is expected to hold untapped cost-saving potential, which may curb increasing overall expenditures for combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) within the statutory health insurance (SHI) of Germany. Methods Data of ARV reimbursed by the SHI were used to describe the trends of defined daily doses (DDD) as well as the revenue within the German ARV market. They were also used to determine the cost-savings of moving to generic drugs. The time period observed was between January 2017 and June 2019. The potential cost-savings were determined with following assumption in mind: the maximum possible use of generic ARV, including 1) the split of STR and replacing all substance partners with generic ones, and 2) replacing patented tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine (TAF/FTC) with generic TDF/FTC. Results Throughout the observation period, the DDD of generic ARV increased nearly five-fold while their revenue increased more than four-fold. Total cost-saving showed a sharp increase over the same period, with generic TDF/FTC accounting for a share of around 70%. The largest potential cost-saving could have been achieved through replacing patented TAF/FTC with generic TDF/FTC, peaking at nearly 10% of total revenue, but showing decreasing trends in general. Conclusion The progressive distribution of generic ARV ensured increasing cost-savings, but consequently curbed the potential cost-savings. Unique price reductions of generic TDF/FTC have played a pivotal role for these effects. In any case, substituting with generic ARV should not fail to adhere to the treatment guidelines and continue to consider the medical requirements for the treatment.

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