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2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (4) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Due to the increasing ageing population, how can caregivers effectively provide long-term care services to meet the older adults’ needs with finite resources is emerging. In addressing this issue, nursing homes are striving to adopt smart health with the internet of things and artificial intelligence to improve the efficiency and sustainability of healthcare. This study proposed a two-echelon responsive health analytic model (EHAM) to deliver appropriate healthcare services in nursing homes under the Internet of Medical Things environment. A novel care plan revision index is developed using a dual fuzzy logic approach for multidimensional health assessments, followed by care plan modification using case-based reasoning. The findings reveal that EHAM can generate patient-centred long-term care solutions of high quality to maximise the satisfaction of nursing home residents and their families. Ultimately, sustainable healthcare services can be within the communities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 268-273
Kuldip Kumar

Background: In a country like India, the prisoner cells are not well structured. For instance prisons are known to be a high risk environment for infections like tuberculosis (TB), HIV, HCV, HBV etc. due to overcrowding, low levels of nutrition, poor infection control and lack of accessible healthcare services. This study is an effort to know about the pattern of infections in custodial death cases detected during post mortem examination. Aims and Objectives: To determine the common infections and to know the mortality caused by infections among prisoners in custody, people in police custody and mentally ill patients in mental health institute in Punjab.Methods:This cross sectional study of 100 cases of custodial deaths from 1st Jan 2019 to 4thMay 2021, was carried out in the Forensic Medicine department in collaboration with department of Microbiology, Govt. Medical College, Amritsar.Results:Klebsiella Pneumoniae (37.5%) is more common in age group of 10-30 years while Staphylococcus Aureus (35.9%) infection was more common in the age group of 31 to 50 years. Incidence of positive growth of infections was slightly more in female inmates (76.9%) as compared to the males (75.9%). Inmates from urban area background showed more growth of Staphylococcus Aureus (35.7%) than from rural area background(25%).Conclusions:Timely medical diagnosis and treatment of each prisoner with availability of good doctors are the important issues relating to the healthcare of the individuals in custody.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Jennifer White ◽  
Julie Byles ◽  
Tom Walley

Abstract Background Adaptive models of healthcare delivery, such as telehealth consultations, have rapidly been adopted to ensure ongoing delivery of essential healthcare services during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there remain gaps in our understanding of how clinicians have adapted to telehealth. This study aims to explore the telehealth experiences of specialists, based at a tertiary hospital in the Hunter Region, and general practitioners (GP), including barriers, enablers and opportunities. Methods An interpretative qualitative study involving in-depth interviews explored the telehealth experiences of specialists, based at a tertiary hospital in the Hunter Region of Australia, and GPs, including barriers, enablers and opportunities. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach with constant comparison. Results Individual interviews were conducted with 10 specialists and five GPs. Key themes were identified: (1) transition to telehealth has been valuable but challenging; (2) persisting telehealth process barriers need to be addressed; (3) establishing when face-to-face consults are essential; (4) changes in workload pressures and potential for double-up; (5) essential modification of work practices; and (6) exploring what is needed going forward. Conclusions While there is a need to rationalize and optimize health access during a pandemic, we suggest that more needs to be done to improve telehealth going forward. Our results have important policy implications. Specifically, there is a need to effectively train clinicians to competently utilize and be confident using this telehealth and to educate patients on necessary skills and etiquette.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Anurag Saxena ◽  
Mayur Trivedi ◽  
Zubin Cyrus Shroff ◽  
Manas Sharma

Abstract Background Government-sponsored health insurance schemes (GSHIS) aim to improve access to and utilization of healthcare services and offer financial protection to the population. India’s Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY) is one such GSHIS. This paper aims to understand how the processes put in place to manage hospital-based transactions, from the time a beneficiary arrives at the hospital to discharge are being implemented in PM-JAY and how to improve them to strengthen the scheme’s operation. Methods Guidelines were reviewed for the processes associated with hospital-based transactions, namely, beneficiary authentication, treatment package selection, preauthorization, discharge, and claims payments. Across 14 hospitals in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh states, the above-mentioned processes were observed, and using a semi-structured interview guide fifty-three respondents were interviewed. The study was carried out from March 2019 to August 2019. Results Average turn-around time for claim reimbursement is two to six times higher than that proposed in guidelines and tender. As opposed to the guidelines, beneficiaries are incurring out-of-pocket expenditure while availing healthcare services. The training provided to the front-line workers is software-centric. Hospital-based processes are relatively more efficient in hospitals where frontline workers have a medical/paramedical/managerial background. Conclusions There is a need to broaden capacity-building efforts from enabling frontline staff to operate the scheme’s IT platform to developing the technical, managerial, and leadership skills required for them. At the hospital level, an empowered frontline worker is the key to efficient hospital-based processes. There is a need to streamline back-end processes to eliminate the causes for delay in the processing of claim payment requests. For policymakers, the most important and urgent need is to reduce out-of-pocket expenses. To that end, there is a need to both revisit and streamline the existing guidelines and ensure adherence to the guidelines.

2022 ◽  
Kristin Lunz Trujillo ◽  
Matthew Baum ◽  
David Lazer ◽  
Katherine Ognyanova ◽  
James Druckman ◽  

How significant a problem is misinformation for the delivery of healthcare services? Misinformation, and any resulting misperceptions, certainly have the potential to negatively impact people’s attitudes and behaviors surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic. Whether or not someone internalizes misinformation depends on multiple factors, but one key consideration is their level of trust in established experts providing cues on COVID-19 behavior. For instance, people who do not trust sources such as the CDC will be less likely to follow its recommendations on COVID-19 prevention behaviors, and may instead opt to seek out information - which often turns out to be misinformation - on their own. Understanding the sources and effects of information and misinformation is therefore important.

2022 ◽  
Dhamidhu Eratne ◽  
Michael Keem ◽  
Courtney Lewis ◽  
Matthew Kang ◽  
Mark Walterfang ◽  

Background: Distinguishing behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from non-neurodegenerative non-progressor, phenocopy mimics of frontal lobe dysfunction, can be one of the most challenging clinical dilemmas. A biomarker of neuronal injury, neurofilament light chain (NfL), could reduce misdiagnosis and delay. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NfL, amyloid beta 1-42 (AB42), total and phosphorylated tau (T-tau, P-tau) levels were examined in patients with an initial diagnosis of bvFTD. Based on follow up information, patients were categorised as Progressors. Non-Progressors were subtyped in to Phenocopy Non-Progressors (non-neurological/neurodegenerative final diagnosis), and Static Non-Progressors (static deficits, not fully explained by non-neurological/neurodegenerative causes). Results: Forty-three patients were included: 20 Progressors, 23 Non-Progressors (15 Phenocopy, 8 Static), 20 controls. NfL concentrations were lower in Non-Progressors (Non-Progressors Mean, M=554pg/mL, 95%CI:[461, 675], Phenocopy Non-Progressors M=459pg/mL, 95%CI:[385, 539], Static Non-Progressors M=730pg/mL, 95%CI:[516, 940]), compared to bvFTD Progressors (M=2397pg/mL, 95%CI:[1607, 3332]). NfL distinguished Progressors from Non-Progressors with the highest accuracy (area under the curve 0.92, 90%/87% sensitivity/specificity, 86%/91% positive/negative predictive value, 88% accuracy). Static Non-Progressors tended to have higher T-tau and P-tau levels compared to Phenocopy Non-Progressors. Conclusion: This study demonstrated strong diagnostic utility of CSF NfL to distinguish bvFTD from phenocopy non-progressor variants, at baseline, with high accuracy, in a real-world clinical setting. This has important clinical implications, to improve outcomes for patients and clinicians facing this challenging clinical dilemma, as well as for healthcare services, and clinical trials. Further research is required to investigate heterogeneity within the non-progressor group and potential diagnostic algorithms, and prospective studies are underway assessing plasma NfL

Silvia Vicentini ◽  
Arianna Mercurio ◽  
Carolina Romascu ◽  
Martina Battaglia ◽  
Noemi Tribbia ◽  

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has strongly impacted on healthcare services’ organization and healthcare workers’ mental health, increasing the risk of psychological symptoms and burnout. Italy has been one of the most affected countries, especially the northern regions, even with exceptions in some rural provinces. Aim: We chose to investigate the mental health conditions of healthcare workers operating in the rural province of Rovigo (a small town in Veneto, northern Italy), where relatively few deaths and contagions were reported during the pandemic, even if Veneto—globally—was one of the most affected regions of Italy. We wanted to verify the psychological outcomes of health workers operating in a context where the impact of the pandemic appeared to be relatively mild. Methods: Through an online survey, we investigated perceived difficulties at work and in daily life, perceived loneliness and social support, coping strategies, and level of psychological distress (sample size: 749; mean age = 48.04 years, SD = 10.66). The questionnaire had both open- (2) and close-ended questions (5 single-choice and 13 multiple-choice). We verified possible associations between sex, age group, work department and percentage of responses with chi-square tests of independence on each question. Data cleaning excluded all contradictory answers from the multiple-choice questions from the analyses (final sample size: 640). Results: Frontliners and non-frontliners reported a similar experience of the COVID-19 pandemic (without significant differences in perceived difficulties, coping strategies and sources of support). Nevertheless, they still reported various forms of negative emotions (e.g., helplessness—40.94%; sadness—36.56%; frustration—32.66%) and lack of support from the health organization (especially frontliners—28.72%). However, psychological help was scarcely requested. Conclusions: Despite the province not being massively affected by the pandemic, healthcare workers felt the need for clearer and more supportive guidance. They seem to perceive collective opportunities to share needs and difficulties as more useful than individual interventions (as those provided by the ad hoc created listening service).

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Charlotte Reedtz ◽  
Eva Jensaas ◽  
Trine Storjord ◽  
Kjersti Bergum Kristensen ◽  
Camilla Lauritzen

Background:According to amended legislation implemented in Norway in 2010, personnel in healthcare services for adults are obligated to identify patients' minor children and to assess the family situation. Health personnel is also obligated to contribute to adequate support to families affected by parental mental illness or substance use disorders. The intention behind the amendment was to support and protect children of mentally ill parents, as they are at risk of developing problems of their own. The aim of the present study was to evaluate health personnel's practice during the years 2010-2020, more specifically; (a) to what extent children of patients with mental illness and substance use disorders are registered in patient records, and (b) to what extent activities relating to the assessment and support of patients' minor children are documented in patient records.Method:The participants in the study are patients admitted to Division for Mental Health and Substance Use at the University Hospital of North Norway in the years 2010–2020. The data was drawn from patient records during October 2021.Results:The registration of patients' minor children is considerably strengthened since the introduction of the new Norwegian Health Personnel Act in 2010, and estimates show that 56% of patients' minor children are identified. However, only 31% of cases where patients have identified minor children this result in health personnel performing activities to support the children.Discussion:Based on the rising proportion of identified minor children throughout the 10-year period, it seems evident that the dissemination efforts have contributed to the development of some new skills among health personnel. However, compared with the national estimation that 35% of mentally ill and substance abusing patients have minor children, a large proportion of children remains unidentified. After identification, there seem to still be a long way to go before minor children are systematically offered support. Different solutions to strengthen the implementation of new skills in clinical practice, to ensure the identification of minor children and provision of necessary support for them is discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. S10-S15
Hilary Piercy ◽  
Shona Kelly ◽  
Matthew Wills ◽  
Michelle Croston

The COVID-19 pandemic has created a set of unprecedented challenges for healthcare services and staff. The authors conducted a national online survey of nurses employed to work in HIV services in England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland to establish how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted on the professional quality of life of HIV nurses. Professional quality of life was assessed using the ProQOL scale; 132 nurses completed the survey, 99 of whom completed the ProQOL scale. Just over 1 in 3 were redeployed in the first pandemic wave, dropping to 1 in 6 in subsequent waves. In multivariate analysis, redeployment in both waves increased burnout scores by nearly 10 points and decreased compassion satisfaction scores by nearly 5 points, with no effect on secondary traumatic stress scores. A supportive workplace environment will have a key role in supporting the path to recovery.

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