Prostate Cancer
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2021 ◽  
Vol 157 ◽  
pp. 259-267
Nicholas Spetsieris ◽  
Myrto Boukovala ◽  
Ioannis Alafis ◽  
John Davis ◽  
Amado Zurita ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 1333-1337
Kazuhiro Kitajima ◽  
Shingo Yamamoto ◽  
Takashi Yamasaki ◽  
Takako Kihara ◽  
Yusuke Kawanaka ◽  

Ductal adenocarcinoma is a variant of prostatic adenocarcinoma, originating from the epithelial lining of the primary and secondary ducts of the prostate. We report a 63-year-old male with prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma, presenting as urinary retention and a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 11.71 ng/mL and biopsy-proven prostate cancer (Gleason score 3 + 3). MRI showed 2 hemorrhagic, multilocular cysts projecting into the bladder side from the prostatic inner gland and between the prostate and the right seminal vesicle. The prostate inner gland showed high signal intensity on the T2-weighted image and included tiny hyperintense spots on the fat-suppression T1-weighted image. In the part of the border of the hemorrhagic, multilocular cyst, a solid portion showing slight low intensity on T1-weigthed imaging and markedly restricted diffusion was observed, suggesting prostate cancer. He underwent total prostatectomy, and ductal adenocarcinoma (Gleason score 4 + 4) in the prostate inner gland and multilocular cysts was pathologically diagnosed. After the operation, his PSA level gradually increased, and MRI 8 months after the operation showed a vesical multilocular cyst, suggesting local recurrence. After he underwent radiation therapy and hormonal therapy, PSA level decreased, and no re-recurrence was observed during 8 years. We suggest its inclusion in the differential diagnosis of cases of prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma’s multiloculated cystic formation around the prostate and the bladder.

2021 ◽  
Tong Wang ◽  
Hui-Lin Cheng ◽  
Ping Kit Kitty Wong ◽  
Wen Dong

Abstract Purpose While the existing knowledge base on the impact of prostate cancer (PC) and its treatment on sexuality and intimacy has been generated from Western populations, there is a lack of such evidence in the Asian context. This study aimed to explore men’s experiences of sex and intimacy after PC treatment in China. Methods This study adopted an interpretive descriptive design. Using purposive sampling, 13 PC patients were selected from a urology outpatient unit of a hospital in South China and proceeded with individual semi-structured telephone interviews. Each interview was transcribed verbatim and analyzed using constant comparison analysis. Results Four themes emerged from the interview data, including (a) encountering altered sexuality, (b) communication and sexual adjustments, (c) maintenance of quality intimate relationship, and (d) lack of sexual health support. Conclusions The findings revealed that PC treatment significantly impaired patients’ sexual functions, and their sexual health needs were mainly unmet by healthcare providers. There is a great need to design culturally relevant interventions to improve sexual health among this population.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Denise L. Bellinger ◽  
Melissa S. Dulcich ◽  
Christine Molinaro ◽  
Peter Gifford ◽  
Dianne Lorton ◽  

Prostate cancer (PCa) prevalence is higher in older men and poorer coping with psychosocial stressors effect prognosis. Yet, interactions between age, stress and PCa progression are underexplored. Therefore, we characterized the effects of age and isolation combined with restraint (2 h/day) for 14 days post-tumor inoculation on behavior, tumor growth and host defense in the immunocompetent, orthotopic RM-9 murine PCa model. All mice were tumor inoculated. Isolation/restraint increased sympathetic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortical activation, based on elevated serum 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol/norepinephrine ratios and corticosterone levels, respectively. Elevated zero maze testing revealed age-related differences in naïve C57Bl/6 mice, and increased anxiety-like behavior in tumor-bearing mice. In open field testing, old stressed mice were less active throughout the 30-min test than young non-stressed and stressed, and old non-stressed mice, suggesting greater anxiety in old stressed mice. Old (18 month) mice demonstrated more depression-like behavior than young mice with tail suspension testing, without effects of isolation/restraint stress. Old mice developed larger tumors, despite similar tumor expression of tumor vascular endothelial growth factor or transforming growth factor-beta1 across age. Tumor chemokine/cytokine expression, commonly prognostic for poorer outcomes, were uniquely age- and stress-dependent, underscoring the need for PCa research in old animals. Macrophages predominated in RM-9 tumors. Macrophages, and CD4+ and CD4+FoxP3+ T-cell tumor infiltration were greater in young mice than in old mice. Stress increased macrophage infiltration in old mice. Conversely, stress reduced intratumoral CD4+ and CD4+FoxP3+ T-cell numbers in young mice. CD8+ T-cell infiltration was similar across treatment groups. Our findings support that age- and psychological stress interacts to affect PCa outcomes by interfering with neural-immune mechanisms and affecting behavioral responses.

BMC Urology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Jae Yoon Kim ◽  
Ji Hyeong Yu ◽  
Luck Hee Sung ◽  
Dae Yeon Cho ◽  
Hyun-Jung Kim ◽  

Abstract Background We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the Beckman Coulter prostate health index (PHI) and to compare it with total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and related derivatives in predicting the presence and aggressiveness of prostate cancer (PCa) in the Korean population. Methods A total of 140 men who underwent their first prostate biopsy for suspected PCa were included in this prospective observational study. The diagnostic performance of total PSA, free PSA, %free PSA, [–2] proPSA (p2PSA), %p2PSA, and PHI in detecting and predicting the aggressiveness of PCa was estimated using the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and logistic multivariate regression analyses. Results Of 140 patients, PCa was detected in 63 (45%) of participants, and 48 (76.2%) of them had significant cancer with a Gleason score (GS) ≥ 7. In the whole group, the area under the curve (AUC) for ROC analysis of tPSA, free PSA, %fPSA, p2PSA, %p2PSA, and PHI were 0.63, 0.57, 0.69, 0.69, 0.72, and 0.76, respectively, and the AUC was significantly greater in the PHI group than in the tPSA group (p = 0.005). For PCa with GS ≥ 7, the AUCs for tPSA, free PSA, %fPSA, p2PSA, %p2PSA, and PHI were 0.62, 0.58, 0.41, 0.79, 0.86, and 0.87, respectively, and the AUC was significantly greater in the PHI group than in the tPSA group (p < 0.001). In the subgroup with tPSA 4–10 ng/mL, both %p2PSA and PHI were strong independent predictors for PCa (p = 0.007, p = 0.006) and significantly improved the predictive accuracy of a base multivariable model, including age, tPSA, fPSA and %fPSA, using multivariate logistic regression analysis. (p = 0.054, p = 0.048). Additionally, at a cutoff PHI value > 33.4, 22.9% (32/140) of biopsies could be avoided without missing any cases of aggressive cancer. Conclusions This study shows that %p2PSA and PHI are superior to total PSA and %fPSA in predicting the presence and aggressiveness (GS ≥ 7) of PCa among Korean men. Using PHI, a significant proportion of unnecessary biopsies can be avoided.

2021 ◽  
pp. jnumed.121.262671
Benedikt Feuerecker ◽  
Maythinee Chantadisai ◽  
Anne Allmann ◽  
Robert Tauber ◽  
Jakob Allmann ◽  

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