treatment guidelines
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Canada Parrish ◽  
Anirban Basu ◽  
Paul Fishman ◽  
Jean Baptiste Koama ◽  
Ermane Robin ◽  

Abstract Background Differentiated care strategies are rapidly becoming the norm for HIV care delivery globally. Building upon an interest in tailoring antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery for client-centered needs, the Ministry of Health and Population in Haiti formally endorsed multiple-month dispenses (MMD) in the 2016 national ART guidelines This study explores heterogeneity in retention in care with MMD for specific Haitian populations living with HIV and evaluates if a targeted algorithm for optimal ART prescription intervals is warranted in Haiti. Methods This study included ART-naïve individuals who started ART on or after January 1st, 2017 in Haiti. To identify subgroups in which to explore heterogeneity of retention, we implemented a double-lasso regression method to determine which individual characteristics would define the subgroups. Characteristics evaluated for potential subgroup definition included: sex, age category, WHO clinical stage, and body mass index category. We employed instrumental variable models to estimate the causal effect of increasing ART dispensing length on ART retention, by client subgroup. The outcome of interest was retention in care after one year in treatment. We then estimated the marginal effect of a 30-day increase to ART dispensing length to retention in care for each of these subgroups. Results There was evidence for heterogeneity in the effect of extending ART dispensing intervals on retention by WHO clinical stage. We observed significant improvements to retention in care at one year with a 30-day increase in ART dispense length for all subgroups defined by WHO clinical stages 1-4. The effects ranged from a 14.7% increase (95% CI: 12.4-17.0) to the likelihood of retention for people with HIV in WHO stage 1 to a 21.6% increase (95% CI: 18.7-24.5) to the likelihood of retention for those in WHO stage 3. Conclusions All the subgroups defined by WHO clinical stage experienced a benefit of extending ART intervals to retention in care at one year. Though the effect did differ slightly by WHO stage, the effects went in the same direction and were of similar magnitude. Therefore, a standardized recommendation for MMD among those living with HIV and new on ART is appropriate for Haiti treatment guidelines.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 99
Haya Nassar ◽  
Rana Abu-Farha ◽  
Muna Barakat ◽  
Eman Alefishat

This study aimed to evaluate health professionals’ perceptions regarding the level of implementation of the Antimicrobials Stewardship (AMS) programs in Jordanian tertiary hospitals and to assess the perceived barriers to its implementation. During this cross-sectional study, a total of 157 healthcare providers agreed to participate (response rate 96.3%). Participants were asked to complete an electronic survey after meeting them at their working sites. Only 43.9% of the healthcare providers (n = 69) reported having an AMS committee in their hospital settings. The results suggested that private hospitals have significantly better AMS implementation compared to public hospitals among four areas (p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the results showed that the most widely available strategies to implement AMS were infectious disease/microbiology advice (n = 112, 71.3%), and treatment guidelines (n = 111, 70.7%). Additionally, the study revealed that the main barrier to AMS implementation was the lack of information technology support (n = 125, 79.6%). These findings could draw managers’ attention to the importance of AMS and support the health care provider’s practice of AMS in Jordanian tertiary hospitals by making the right decisions and the required modifications regarding the strategies needed for the implementation of AMS programs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Matthäus Lottes ◽  
Viviane Bremer ◽  
Christof Prugger ◽  
Christian Kollan ◽  
Daniel Schmidt

Abstract Background Recent patent losses for antiretroviral drugs (ARV) have led to the debate of cost-saving through the replacement of patented drugs with generic drugs. The split of recommended single-tablet regimens (STR) into their single substance partners is one of the considerations mentioned in said debate. Particularly, generic tenofovir disoproxil/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) is expected to hold untapped cost-saving potential, which may curb increasing overall expenditures for combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) within the statutory health insurance (SHI) of Germany. Methods Data of ARV reimbursed by the SHI were used to describe the trends of defined daily doses (DDD) as well as the revenue within the German ARV market. They were also used to determine the cost-savings of moving to generic drugs. The time period observed was between January 2017 and June 2019. The potential cost-savings were determined with following assumption in mind: the maximum possible use of generic ARV, including 1) the split of STR and replacing all substance partners with generic ones, and 2) replacing patented tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine (TAF/FTC) with generic TDF/FTC. Results Throughout the observation period, the DDD of generic ARV increased nearly five-fold while their revenue increased more than four-fold. Total cost-saving showed a sharp increase over the same period, with generic TDF/FTC accounting for a share of around 70%. The largest potential cost-saving could have been achieved through replacing patented TAF/FTC with generic TDF/FTC, peaking at nearly 10% of total revenue, but showing decreasing trends in general. Conclusion The progressive distribution of generic ARV ensured increasing cost-savings, but consequently curbed the potential cost-savings. Unique price reductions of generic TDF/FTC have played a pivotal role for these effects. In any case, substituting with generic ARV should not fail to adhere to the treatment guidelines and continue to consider the medical requirements for the treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
Jessica Craig ◽  
Isabel Frost ◽  
Aditi Sriram ◽  
James Nuttall ◽  
Geetanjali Kapoor ◽  

Standard treatment guidelines (STGs) are an important tool for ensuring high quality clinical care and prudent antimicrobial use (AMU) and stewardship (AMS). In 2018, African Union (AU) member state representatives recognized the lack of STGs as a barrier to AMS at national and facility levels. Previous research reported that only 17 of 55 (31%) member states had STGs that provided disease- or pathogen-specific antimicrobial treatment recommendations, excluding those that covered only treatment of HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis). The Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention convened expert panels to develop first edition antibiotic treatment guidelines for priority infectious diseases and clinical syndromes for pediatric and adult patient populations in Africa. The purpose of the guidelines is to provide healthcare workers with treatment guidance by harmonising existing national STGs, filling gaps where existing STGs are not available, and serving as a model for future guidelines. Two expert panels of 28 total clinicians, pharmacists, and other relevant stakeholders from 14 AU member states representing each continental region convened to develop consensus treatment recommendations for select priority bacterial infections and clinical syndromes. In developing recommendations, the panels considered treatment recommendations from existing STGs, drug availability, clinical experience, and available antimicrobial resistance data. The guidelines underwent an external review process where clinical stakeholders who did not serve on either panel were invited to submit feedback prior to their publication. The guidelines provide empiric antibiotic therapy guidelines – including drug selection, route of administration, formulation, dosage, and therapy duration – and principles of stewardship for 28 bacterial infections or clinical syndromes. The first edition guidelines for the treatment of common infectious diseases and clinical syndromes in Africa aims to improve clinical treatment and antimicrobial stewardship and will serve as a template for future regional guidelines.

Venereology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 23-46
Benjamin Silverberg ◽  
Amy Moyers ◽  
Tate Hinkle ◽  
Roanna Kessler ◽  
Nancy G. Russell

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently updated their Sexually-Transmitted Infection (STI) Treatment Guidelines with a revision to the approach to gonococcal infections in December 2020 and other STIs in July 2021. This article reviews the new recommendations and highlights important updates from the 2015 iteration that are crucial for primary care and community health practice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 14-15
Courtni Jeffers

An analysis and evaluation of the literature regarding traditional treatment methods for depression among older adults compared the effectiveness of the results to the benefits of a treatment plan that integrates the narrative practices of storytelling and reflexive writing. Priority was given to peer-reviewed journal articles from 2008 forward, though some earlier information was used for clarification and foundation building. The formation and implementation of individual patient treatment plans for depression and depressive symptoms are impacted by many variables such as: Confusion surrounding provider treatment guidelines, social organizational context, organizational climate and the differing definitions of depression that exist among providers and patients. Patients often struggle to self-identify or put words to depressive symptoms and the process of reflexive writing is transformative and increases narrative competency, which strengthens a patient’s ability to give an account of oneself, aiding in self-discovery and personal symptom awareness. An imbalance of power exists in the clinical encounter and the practices and principles of the discipline of Narrative Medicine can have a positive impact on strengthening the therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes. Older adults with depression and depressive symptoms have a lower quality of life and often feel less productive in their communities. Traditional pharmacologically based depression treatment plans are one-dimensional and often fail to address personal patient context and preference. Older adults living with diagnosed depression and depressive symptoms can be better served with treatment plans that include narrative techniques that increase alliance, affiliation, self-awareness and self-discovery.  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Shuo Zhang ◽  
Zhen Yang ◽  
Zhen-Lin Chen ◽  
Zhuo-Ning Li ◽  
Shi-Jun Yue ◽  

Objective. To systematically evaluate the efficacy, safety, and precision of TMTP for COVID-19. Methods. Randomized controlled trials and retrospective studies were searched in 11 electronic databases. This network meta-analysis included trials using TMTP to treat patients with COVID-19. The traditional pairwise meta-analysis was done by using Stata 15, and Bayesian network meta-analysis was done with WinBUGS. Results. 18 trials were included with 2036 participants and 7 drugs. The results showed that LHQW had the most significant effects on improving expectoration, shortness of breath, sore throat, nausea, emesis, inappetence, muscle soreness, and headache, and it could produce the least adverse reactions. XBJ was the best drug for fever, fatigue, and diarrhea, which showed great advantages in lowering WBC levels. XFBD was the most effective drug for cough and chest distress, which had the least exacerbation rate. JHQG was the most effective for rhinobyon and rhinorrhea, while QFPD was the best drug in decreasing CRP levels. Conclusion. This study was the first most large-scale and comprehensive research of TMTP for COVID-19. The results showed that LHQW had good efficacy without obvious adverse reactions. Therefore, we believe that it should be firstly recommended for COVID-19 treatment. In addition, XBJ is recommended for patients with a severe fever, fatigue, and diarrhea, and JHQG is recommended for patients with obvious rhinobyon and rhinorrhea; then, XFBD is recommended for patients with cough and chest tightness as the main manifestation. Our findings will help experts develop new COVID-19 treatment guidelines to better guide clinical medication for protecting the health of COVID-19 patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Xi Guo ◽  
Xiaojun Chen ◽  
Jinlan Chen ◽  
Zhiping Tan ◽  
Yifeng Yang ◽  

Traditional Chinese medicine has long been applied to various diseases in China for a few thousand years. In recent years, its market has gradually developed from Asian countries to Western countries. At present, due to the lack of evidence-based medicine research, the effect of traditional Chinese medicine on the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease remains unclear. In evaluating the efficacy and safety of drugs, randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) are recognized as the gold standard for testing the effectiveness and safety of treatments and could offer the best evidence for the formulation of clinical treatment guidelines. Although traditional Chinese medicine has long been used to treat cardiovascular diseases, the research on the application of RCT to test the combination of traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapy or single traditional Chinese medicine therapy started late, and the number is comparably small. In order to summarize and objectively evaluate the research results of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in intervention of cardiovascular diseases, we reviewed the literature of RCTs in this field by searching some Chinese and English databases and put forward some suggestions for the future development and research of traditional Chinese medicine.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Mengfei Ye ◽  
Mengna Shou ◽  
Jian Zhang ◽  
Baiqi Hu ◽  
Chunyan Liu ◽  

Abstract Background T long-term effects of cognitive therapy and behavior therapy (CTBT) for menopausal symptoms are unknown, and whether the effects are different between natural menopause and treatment-induced menopause are currently unclear. Therefore, we sought to conduct an accurate estimate of the efficacy of CTBT for menopausal symptoms. Methods We conducted searches of Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science databases for studies from 1 January 1977 to 1 November 2021. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intervention groups to control groups for menopausal symptoms were included. Hedge's g was used as the standardized between-group effect size with a random-effects model. Results We included 14 RCTs comprising 1618 patients with a mean sample size of 116. CTBT significantly outperformed control groups in terms of reducing hot flushes [g = 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23–0.55, I2 = 45], night sweats, depression (g = 0.50, 95% CI 0.34–0.66, I2 = 51), anxiety (g = 0.38, 95% CI 0.23–0.54, I2 = 49), fatigue, and quality of life. Egger's test indicated no publication bias. Conclusions CTBT is an effective psychological treatment for menopausal symptoms, with predominantly small to moderate effects. The efficacy is sustained long-term, although it declines somewhat over time. The efficacy was stronger for natural menopause symptoms, such as vasomotor symptoms, than for treatment-induced menopause symptoms. These findings provide support for treatment guidelines recommending CTBT as a treatment option for menopausal symptoms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 331
Markus Regauer ◽  
Gordon Mackay ◽  
Owen Nelson ◽  
Wolfgang Böcker ◽  
Christian Ehrnthaller

Background: Surgical treatment of unstable syndesmotic injuries is not trivial, and there are no generally accepted treatment guidelines. The most common controversies regarding surgical treatment are related to screw fixation versus dynamic fixation, the use of reduction clamps, open versus closed reduction, and the role of the posterior malleolus and of the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL). Our aim was to draw important conclusions from the pertinent literature concerning surgical treatment of unstable syndesmotic injuries, to transform these conclusions into surgical principles supported by the literature, and finally to fuse these principles into an evidence-based surgical treatment algorithm. Methods: PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the reference lists of systematic reviews of relevant studies dealing with the surgical treatment of unstable syndesmotic injuries were searched independently by two reviewers using specific terms and limits. Surgical principles supported by the literature were fused into an evidence-based surgical treatment algorithm. Results: A total of 171 articles were included for further considerations. Among them, 47 articles concerned syndesmotic screw fixation and 41 flexible dynamic fixations of the syndesmosis. Twenty-five studies compared screw fixation with dynamic fixations, and seven out of these comparisons were randomized controlled trials. Nineteen articles addressed the posterior malleolus, 14 the role of the AITFL, and eight the use of reduction clamps. Anatomic reduction is crucial to prevent posttraumatic osteoarthritis. Therefore, flexible dynamic stabilization techniques should be preferred whenever possible. An unstable AITFL should be repaired and augmented, as it represents an important stabilizer of external rotation of the distal fibula. Conclusions: The current literature provides sufficient arguments for the development of an evidence-based surgical treatment algorithm for unstable syndesmotic injuries.

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